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Evidence for differentiation of the most primitive small bodies

Benoit Carry 1 P. Vernazza 2 F. Vachier 3 M. Neveu 4, 5 J. Berthier 3 J. Hanuš 6 M. Ferrais 2, 7 Laurent Jorda 2 M. Marsset 8 M. Viikinkoski 9 P. Bartczak 10 R. Behrend 11 Z. Benkhaldoun 12 M Birlan 3, 13 J. Castillo-Rogez 14 F. Cipriani 15 F Colas 3 A. Drouard 2 G. Dudziński 10 J. Desmars 16, 3 C. Dumas 17 J. Ďurech 6 R. Fetick 2 T. Fusco 2 J. Grice 1, 18 E. Jehin 7 M. Kaasalainen 19 A. Kryszczynska 10 Philippe Lamy 20 F. Marchis 21 A. Marciniak 10 T. Michalowski 10 P. Michel 1 M. Pajuelo 3, 22 E. Podlewska-Gaca 10, 23 N. Rambaux 3 T. Santana-Ros 24, 25 A. Storrs 26 P. Tanga 1 A. Vigan 2 B. Warner 27 M. Wieczorek 1 Olivier Witasse 15 Bin Yang 28
Abstract : Dynamical models of Solar System evolution have suggested that the so-called P-and D-type volatile-rich asteroids formed in the outer Solar System beyond Neptune's orbit and may be genetically related to the Jupiter Trojans, the comets and small Kuiper-belt objects (KBOs). Indeed, the spectral properties of P/D-type asteroids resemble that of anhydrous cometary dust. We aim at gaining insights into the above classes of bodies by characterizing the internal structure of a large P/D-type asteroid. Methods. We report high-angular-resolution imaging observations of P-type asteroid (87) Sylvia with VLT/SPHERE. These images were used to reconstruct the 3D shape of Sylvia. Our images together with those obtained in the past with large ground-based telescopes were used to study the dynamics of its two satellites. We also model Sylvia's thermal evolution. The shape of Sylvia appears flattened and elongated (a/b∼1.45 ; a/c∼1.84). We derive a volume-equivalent diameter of 271 ± 5 km, and a low density of 1378 ± 45 kg•m −3. The two satellites orbit Sylvia on circular, equatorial orbits. The oblateness of Sylvia should imply a detectable nodal precession which contrasts with the fully-Keplerian dynamics of its two satellites. This reveals an inhomogeneous internal structure, suggesting that Sylvia is differentiated. Sylvia's low density and differentiated interior can be explained by partial melting and mass redistribution through water percolation. The outer shell would be composed of material similar to interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and the core similar to aqueously altered IDPs or carbonaceous chondrite meteorites such as the Tagish Lake meteorite. Numerical simulations of the thermal evolution of Sylvia show that for a body of such size, partial melting was unavoidable due to the decay of long-lived radionuclides. In addition, we show that bodies as small as 130-150 km in diameter should have followed a similar thermal evolution, while smaller objects, such as comets and the KBO Arrokoth, must have remained pristine, in agreement with in situ observations of these bodies. NASA Lucy mission target (617) Patroclus (diameter ≈140 km) may, however, be differentiated.
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Benoit Carry, P. Vernazza, F. Vachier, M. Neveu, J. Berthier, et al.. Evidence for differentiation of the most primitive small bodies. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2021, 650, A129 (15pp.). ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/202140342⟩. ⟨insu-03184663v2⟩

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