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Intercomparison of density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar, ionization gauges, falling spheres, datasondes and radiosondes during the DYANA campaign

Abstract : During the course of the DYnamics Adapted Network for the Atmosphere (DYANA) campaign in early 1990, various techniques to measure densities and temperatures from the ground up to the lower thermosphere were employed. Some of these measurements were performed near simultaneously (maximum allowed time difference: 1 h) and at the same location, and therefore offered the unique chance of intercomparison of different techniques. In this study, we will report on intercomparisons of data from ground-based instruments (Rayleigh- and sodium-lidar), balloon-borne methods (datasondes and radiosondes) and rocket-borne techniques (falling spheres and ionization gauges). The main result is that there is good agreement between the various measurements when considering the error bars. Only occasionally did we notice small but systematic differences (e.g. for the datasondes above 65 km). The most extensive intercomparison was possible between the Rayleigh lidar and the falling sphere technique, both employed in Biscarrosse (44 deg N, 1 deg W). Concerning densities, excellent agreement was found below 63 km: the mean of the deviations is less than 1% and the root mean square (RMS) is approximately 3%. Systematic differences of the order of 5% were noticed around 67 km and above 80 km. The former can be accounted for by an instrumental effect of the falling sphere (Ma = 1 transition; Ma = Mach number), whereas the latter is tentatively explained by the presence of Mie scatterers in the upper mesosphere. Concerning temperatures, the agreement is excellent between 35 and 65 km: the mean of the deviations is less than +/- 3 K and the variability is +/- 5 K. The two systematic density differences mentioned above also affect the temperatures: between 65 and 80 km, the Rayleigh lidar temperatures are systematically lower than the falling sphere values by approximately 5 K.
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 4, 2021 - 6:05:16 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, February 6, 2021 - 3:12:59 AM

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F.-J. Lübken, W. Hillert, G. Lehmacher, U. von Zahn, M. Bittner, et al.. Intercomparison of density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar, ionization gauges, falling spheres, datasondes and radiosondes during the DYANA campaign. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, Elsevier, 1994, 56 (13-14), pp.1969-1984. ⟨10.1016/0021-9169(94)90023-X⟩. ⟨insu-03132093⟩

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