S. B. Alpern, Did They or Didn't They Invent It? Iron in Sub-Saharan Africa, History in Africa, vol.32, pp.41-94, 2005.

P. Arneitz, R. Leonhardt, E. Schnepp, B. Heilig, F. Mayrhofer et al., The HISTMAG database: Combining historical, archaeomagnetic and volcanic data, 2017.

, Geophysical Journal International, vol.210, pp.1347-1359


P. Arneitz, R. Egli, R. Leonhardt, and K. Fabian, A Bayesian iterative geomagnetic model with universal data input: Self-consistent spherical harmonic evolution for the geomagnetic field over the last 4000 years, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.290, pp.57-75, 2019.

J. Brown, Traditional metalworking in Kenya, Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology, issue.38, p.44, 1995.

M. C. Brown, F. Donadini, A. Nilsson, S. Panovska, U. Frank et al., GEOMAGIA50.v3: 2. A new paleomagnetic database for lake and marine sediments. Earth, Planets and Space 67, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02431865

S. Campuzano, M. Gomez-paccard, F. J. Pavon-carrasco, and M. L. Osete, Emergence and evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly revealed by the new paleomagnetic reconstruction SHAWQ2k, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.512, pp.17-26, 2019.


L. Casas, B. Fouzai, M. Prevosti, N. Laridhi-ouazaa, R. Járrega et al., New Archaeomagnetic Data from Tunisia: Dating of Two Kilns and New, 2016.

, Archaeointensities from Three Ceramic Artifacts. Geoarchaeology, vol.31, pp.564-576


A. Chauvin, Y. Garcia, P. Lanos, and F. Laubenheimer, Paleointensity of the geomagnetic field recovered on archaeomagnetic sites from France, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.120, issue.00, pp.148-153, 2000.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00396742

C. Constable, M. Korte, and S. Panovska, Persistent high paleosecular variation activity in southern hemisphere for at least 10 000 years, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.453, pp.78-86, 2016.

R. Day, M. Fuller, and V. A. Schmidt, Hysteresis properties of titanomagnetites: Grain size and composition dependence, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.13, pp.260-267, 1977.

L. V. De-groot, A. Béguin, M. E. Kosters, E. M. Van-rijsingen, E. L. Struijk et al., High paleointensities for the Canary Islands constrain the Levant geomagnetic high, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.419, pp.154-167, 2015.

A. Di-chiara, Paleo-secular variations of the geomagnetic field in Africa during Holocene: a Review, Special Publications SP497-2019-51, 2019.

F. Donadini, V. Serneels, L. Kapper, and A. El-kateb, Directional changes of the geomagnetic field in West Africa: Insights from the metallurgical site of Korsimoro, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.430, pp.349-355, 2015.


D. J. Dunlop, Theory and application of the Day plot (M rs /M s versus H cr /H c ) 1. Theoretical curves and tests using titanomagnetite data, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.107, 2002.

D. Dunlop and Ö. Özdemir, Rock Magnetism, 1997.

M. Gómez-paccard, G. Mcintosh, A. Chauvin, E. Beamud, F. J. Pavón-carrasco et al., Archaeomagnetic and rock magnetic study of six kilns from North Africa (Tunisia and Morocco), Geophysical Journal International, vol.189, pp.169-186, 2012.

G. A. Hartmann and I. G. Pacca, Time evolution of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly, Ann. Braz. Acad. Sci, vol.81, pp.243-255, 2009.

G. Hellio and N. Gillet, Time-correlation-based regression of the geomagnetic field from archeological and sediment records, Geophysical Journal International, vol.214, pp.1585-1607, 2018.

E. Herrero-bervera, R. Ubangoh, F. T. Aka, and J. Valet, Paleomagnetic and paleosecular variation study of the Mt, 2004.

W. Cameroon and . Africa, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.147, pp.171-182


G. Herv, A. Chauvin, P. Lanos, P. Ochette, M. Perrin et al., Cooling rate effect on thermoremanent magnetization in archaeological baked clays: an experimental study on modern bricks, Geophysical Journal International, vol.217, pp.1413-1424, 2019.

A. G. Hogg, Q. Hua, P. G. Blackwell, M. Niu, C. E. Buck et al., SHCal13 Southern Hemisphere Calibration, 0-50,000 Years cal BP, Radiocarbon, vol.55, pp.1889-1903, 2013.

L. Iles and P. Lane, Iron production in second millennium AD pastoralist contexts on the Laikipia plateau, 2015.

L. Iles and M. Torres, Pastoralist iron production on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya: wider implications for archaeometallurgical studies, Journal of Archaeological Science, vol.36, pp.2314-234, 2009.

A. Jackson, A. R. Jonkers, and M. R. Walker, Four centuries of geomagnetic secular variation from historical records, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.358, pp.957-990, 2000.

A. R. Jonkers, Four centuries of geomagnetic data from historical records, Reviews of Geophysics, vol.41, 2003.

L. Kapper, F. Donadini, V. Serneels, E. Tema, A. Goguitchaichvili et al., Reconstructing the Geomagnetic Field in West Africa: First Absolute Intensity Results from Burkina Faso, Scientific Reports, vol.7, 2017.

L. Kapper, V. Serneels, S. Panovska, R. G. Ruíz, G. Hellio et al., 2020. Novel insights on the geomagnetic field in West Africa from a new intensity reference curve (0-2000 AD), vol.10

D. Killick, A global perspective on the pyrotechnologies of Sub-Saharan Africa, Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, vol.51, pp.62-87, 2016.


C. Kissel, C. Laj, A. Rodriguez-gonzalez, F. Perez-torrado, J. C. Carracedo et al., Holocene geomagnetic field intensity variations: Contribution from the low latitude Canary Islands site, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.430, pp.178-190, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01805580


C. Kissel, A. Rodriguez-gonzalez, C. Laj, F. Perez-torrado, J. C. Carracedo et al., Paleosecular variation of the earth magnetic field at the Canary J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f Islands over the last 15 ka, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.412, pp.52-60, 2015.


L. Ph, Bayesian inference of calibration curves: application to archaeomagnetism, Tools for Constructing Chronologies: Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries, vol.177, 2004.

R. Leonhardt, C. Heunemann, and D. Krása, Analyzing absolute paleointensity determinations: Acceptance criteria and the software ThellierTool4.0. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 5, 2004.

R. Leonhardt, A. Saleh, and A. Ferk, Archaeomagnetic field intensity during the Roman period at Siwa and Bahryn oasis, Egypt: Implications for the fidelity of Egyptian archaeomagnetic data, Archaeometry, vol.52, pp.502-516, 2009.

S. Levi, The effect of magnetite particle size on paleointensity determinations of the geomagnetic field, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.13, pp.245-259, 1977.

P. C. Lurcock and G. S. Wilson, PuffinPlot: A versatile, user-friendly program for paleomagnetic analysis: technical brief. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 13, 2012.

F. N. M'mbogori, Late Iron Age technology of Mt. Kenya region: the case study of the Kangai and Kanyua archaeological sites in Mbeere District, pp.46-55, 2013.

F. N. M'mbogori and M. J. Davies, Revisiting the Bantu migration narrative: a case study from Mt. Kenya region

R. Mitra, L. Tauxe, and S. Keech-mcintosh, Two thousand years of archeointensity from West Africa, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, pp.123-133, 2013.

L. P. Neukirch, J. A. Tarduno, T. N. Huffman, M. K. Watkeys, C. A. Scribner et al., An archeomagnetic analysis of burnt grain bin floors from ca. 1200 to 1250 AD Iron-Age South Africa, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, pp.71-79, 2012.


H. Odah, Improvement of the secular variation curve of the geomagnetic field in Egypt during the last 6000 years. Earth, planets and space 51, pp.1325-1329, 1999.

M. L. Osete, G. Catanzariti, A. Chauvin, F. J. Pavón-carrasco, P. Roperch et al., First archaeomagnetic field intensity data from Ethiopia, Africa (1615±12AD), Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.242, pp.24-35, 2015.


F. J. Pavon-carrasco and A. De-santis, The South Atlantic Anomaly: The Key for a Possible Geomagnetic Reversal, Frontiers Earth Sci, vol.4, p.40, 2016.

P. J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell et al.,

K. F. Kaiser, B. Kromer, S. W. Manning, M. Niu, R. W. Reimer et al., IntCal13 AND Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0-50,000 years Cal BP, Radiocarbon, vol.55, pp.1869-1887, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02470111

C. Robion-brunner, L'Afrique des m taux, pp.520-543, 2018.

J. G. Shellnutt, N. H. Pham, S. W. Denyszyn, M. Yeh, and T. Lee, Timing of collisional and post-collisional Pan-African Orogeny silicic magmatism in southcentral Chad, Precambrian Research, vol.301, pp.113-123, 2017.

N. J. Skinner, W. Iles, and A. Brock, The recent secular variation of declination and inclination in Kenya, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.25, pp.338-346, 1975.

, , pp.90251-90255

J. Tanguy, P. Bachèlery, and M. Le-goff, Archeomagnetism of Piton de la Fournaise: Bearing on volcanic activity at La Réunion Island and geomagnetic secular variation in Southern Indian Ocean, Earth Planetary Science Letters, vol.303, pp.361-368, 2011.

J. A. Tarduno, M. K. Watkeys, T. N. Huffman, R. D. Cottrell, E. G. Blackman et al., Antiquity of the South Atlantic Anomaly and evidence for top-down control on the geodynamo, Nature Communications, vol.6, 2015.

L. Tauxe, R. Shaar, L. Jonestrask, N. L. Swanson-hysell, R. Minnett et al., PmagPy: Software package for paleomagnetic data analysis and a bridge to the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Database. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol.17, pp.2450-2463, 2016.

F. Terra-nova, H. Amit, G. A. Hartmann, R. I. Trindade, and K. J. Pinheiro, Relating the South Atlantic Anomaly and geomagnetic flux patches, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.266, pp.39-53, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02348660

E. Thébault, C. C. Finlay, C. D. Beggan, P. Alken, J. Aubert et al., International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the twelfth generation, Earth Planets Space, vol.67, p.79, 2015.