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Loss and Fractionation of Noble Gas Isotopes and Moderately Volatile Elements from Planetary Embryos and Early Venus, Earth and Mars

Abstract : Here we discuss the current state of knowledge on how atmospheric escape processes can fractionate noble gas isotopes and moderately volatile rock-forming elements that populate primordial atmospheres, magma ocean related environments, and catastrophically outgassed steam atmospheres. Variations of isotopes and volatile elements in different planetary reservoirs keep information about atmospheric escape, composition and even the source of accreting material. We summarize our knowledge on atmospheric isotope ratios and discuss the latest evidence that proto-Venus and Earth captured small H-2-dominated primordial atmospheres that were lost by hydrodynamic escape during and after the disk dispersed. All relevant thermal and non-thermal atmospheric escape processes that can fractionate various isotopes and volatile elements are discussed. Erosion of early atmospheres, crust and mantle by large planetary impactors are also addressed. Further, we discuss how moderately volatile elements such as the radioactive heat producing element K-40 and other rock-forming elements such as Na can also be outgassed and lost from magma oceans that originate on large planetary embryos and accreting planets. Outgassed elements escape from planetary embryos with masses that are <= M-Moon directly, or due to hydrodynamic drag of escaping H atoms originating from primordial- or steam atmospheres at more massive embryos. We discuss how these processes affect the final elemental composition and ratios such as K/U, Fe/Mg of early planets and their building blocks. Finally, we review modeling efforts that constrain the early evolution of Venus, Earth and Mars by reproducing their measured present day atmospheric Ar-36/Ar-38, Ne-20/Ne-22, noble gas isotope ratios and the role of isotopes on the loss of water and its connection to the redox state on early Mars.
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https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02912562
Contributor : Eva Fareau <>
Submitted on : Thursday, August 6, 2020 - 10:48:23 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, September 1, 2020 - 3:06:53 AM

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Helmut Lammer, Manuel Scherf, Hiroyuki Kurokawa, Yuichiro Ueno, Christoph Burger, et al.. Loss and Fractionation of Noble Gas Isotopes and Moderately Volatile Elements from Planetary Embryos and Early Venus, Earth and Mars. Space Science Reviews, Springer Verlag, 2020, 216 (4), ⟨10.1007/s11214-020-00701-x⟩. ⟨insu-02912562⟩

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