J. S. Armstrong-altrin, Y. I. Lee, S. P. Verma, and S. Ramasamy, Geochemistry of Sandstones from 604 the Upper Miocene Kudankulam Formation, Southern India: Implications for Provenance, p.605, 2004.

T. Weathering and . Setting, J. Sediment. Res, vol.74, pp.285-297

J. Aubineau, A. E. Albani, E. C. Fru, M. Gingras, Y. Batonneau et al., , p.609

A. Riboulleau, A. Trentesaux, and K. O. Konhauser, Unusual microbial mat-related 610 structural diversity 2.1 billion years ago and implications for the Francevillian biota, 611 Geobiology, vol.16, pp.476-497, 2018.

G. Azzibrouck-azziley, Sédimentologie et géochimie du Francevillien B (Protérozoïque 613 inférieur), in: Métallogénie des gisements de manganèse de Moanda, 1986.

O. M. Bankole, A. E. Albani, A. Meunier, F. Pambo, J. Paquette et al., Earth's oldest 616 preserved K-bentonites in the ca. 2.1 Ga Francevillian Basin, Gabon, Am. J. Sci, vol.318, pp.409-434, 2018.

O. M. Bankole, A. E. Albani, A. Meunier, O. J. Rouxel, F. Gauthier-lafaye et al., Origin of 619 red beds in the Paleoproterozoic Franceville Basin, Gabon, and implications for sandstone-620 hosted uranium mineralization, Am. J. Sci, vol.316, pp.839-872, 2016.

O. M. Bankole, A. El-albani, A. Meunier, and F. Gauthier-lafaye, Textural and paleo-fluid flow 622 control on diagenesis in the Paleoproterozoic Franceville Basin, p.623, 2015.

, Precambrian Res, vol.268, pp.115-134

A. Bekker, A. N. Sial, J. A. Karhu, V. P. Ferreira, C. M. Noce et al., , p.625

M. M. , Chemostratigraphy of Carbonates from the Minas Supergroup, Quadrilatero 626 Ferryifero (Iron Quadrangle), Brazil: A Stratigraphic Record of Early Proterozoic Atmospheric, 627 Biogeochemical and Climactic Change, Am. J. Sci, vol.303, pp.865-904, 2003.

M. R. Bhatia and K. A. Crook, Trace element characteristics of graywackes and tectonic setting 630 discrimination of sedimentary basins, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol, vol.92, pp.181-193, 1986.

B. Bock, S. M. Mclennan, and G. N. Hanson, Rare earth element redistribution and its effects on 633 the neodymium isotope system in the austin Glen Member of the Normanskill Formation, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.634, issue.94, pp.90308-90313, 1994.

M. G. Bonhomme, F. Gauthier-lafaye, and F. Weber, Geochronological correlation of Precambrian 638 sediments and volcanics in stable zones 18, Precambrian Res, issue.82, pp.90038-90047, 1982.

P. Bouton, D. Thiéblemont, J. Gouin, A. Cocherie, C. Guerrot et al., Notice explicative de la carte géologique de la République, p.642, 2009.

, Gabon à 1/200 000, feuille Franceville-Boumango. Edition DGMG-Ministère des Mines, du 643 Pétrole, des Hydrocarbures

R. Bros, P. Stille, F. Gauthier-lafaye, F. Weber, and N. Clauer, Sm-Nd isotopic dating of 645 Proterozoic clay material: An example from the Francevillian sedimentary series, Gabon. 646 Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.113, pp.207-218, 1992.

M. Caen-vachette, Y. Vialette, J. Bassot, P. Vidal, and P. , Apport de la geochronology isotopique à 648 la connaissance de la géologie gabonaise, 1988.

D. E. Canfield, L. Ngombi-pemba, E. U. Hammarlund, S. Bengtson, M. Chaussidon et al., Oxygen dynamics in the aftermath of the Great Oxidation of Earth's 652 atmosphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.110, pp.16736-16741, 2013.


J. Carignan, P. Hild, G. Mevelle, J. Morel, D. Yeghicheyan et al., Routine Analyses of Trace 655 Elements in Geological Samples using Flow Injection and Low Pressure On-Line Liquid 656 Chromatography Coupled to ICP-MS: A Study of Geochemical Reference Materials BR, Newsl, vol.25, pp.187-198, 2001.

K. C. Condie, Chemical composition and evolution of the upper continental crust: contrasting 660 results from surface samples and shales, Chem. Geol, vol.104, pp.1-37, 1993.

R. Cullers, Geochemistry of the Mesoproterozoic Lakhanda shales in southeastern Yakutia, p.662, 2000.

, Russia: implications for mineralogical and provenance control, and recycling. Precambrian 663 Res, vol.104, pp.77-93

R. L. Cullers, The controls on the major and trace element variation of shales, siltstones, and 665 sandstones of Pennsylvanian-Permian age from uplifted continental blocks in Colorado to 666 platform sediment in, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.58, pp.4955-4972, 1994.


M. Cuney and R. Mathieu, Extreme light rare earth element mobilization by diagenetic fluids in 669 the geological environment of the Oklo natural reactor zones, 670 Geology, vol.28, pp.743-746, 2000.

D. J. Depaolo, A. M. Linn, and G. Schubert, The continental crustal age distribution: Methods of 672 determining mantle separation ages from Sm-Nd isotopic data and application to the 673 southwestern United States, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol.96, pp.2071-2088, 1991.

D. J. Depaolo and G. J. Wasserburg, Inferences about magma sources and mantle structure from 676 variations of 143Nd/144Nd, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.3, pp.743-746, 1976.

S. N. Ehrenberg and P. H. Nadeau, Postdepositional Sm/Nd Fractionation in Sandstones: 679 Implications for Neodymium-Isotope Stratigraphy, J. Sediment. Res, vol.72, pp.304-315, 2002.

A. El-albani, S. Bengtson, D. E. Canfield, A. Riboulleau, C. R. Bard et al., , p.682

E. Hammarlund, A. Meunier, I. M. Mouele, K. Benzerara, S. Bernard et al., , p.683

M. Chaussidon, C. Cesari, C. Fontaine, E. Chi-fru, J. M. Ruiz et al., , p.684

A. Mazurier, A. C. Pierson-wickmann, O. Rouxel, A. Trentesaux, M. Vecoli et al., , p.685

G. J. White, L. Whitehouse, M. Bekker, and A. , The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: 686 Biogenicity, Taphonomy and Biodiversity, PLOS ONE, vol.9, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02055045

A. El-albani, M. G. Mangano, L. A. Buatois, S. Bengtson, A. Riboulleau et al., , p.689

T. Lyons, C. Rollion-bard, O. Bankole, S. G. Baghekema, A. Meunier et al., , p.690

A. Mazurier, J. Aubineau, C. Laforest, C. Fontaine, P. Recourt et al., , p.691

J. Y. Reynaud, F. Gauthier-lafaye, and D. E. Canfield, Organism motility in an oxygenated 692 shallow-marine environment 2.1 billion years ago, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.116, pp.3431-3436, 2019.

C. M. Fedo, H. W. Nesbitt, and G. M. Young, Unraveling the effects of potassium metasomatism in 695 sedimentary rocks and paleosols, with implications for paleoweathering conditions and 696 provenance, Geology, vol.23, pp.921-924, 1995.

J. L. Feybesse, V. Johan, C. Triboulet, C. Guerrot, F. Mayaga-mikolo et al., The West Central African belt: a model of 2.5-2.0Ga accretion and two-phase orogenic 700 evolution, Precambrian Res, vol.699, pp.53-56, 1998.

P. A. Floyd and B. E. Leveridge, Tectonic environment of the Devonian Gramscatho basin, south 702 Cornwall: framework mode and geochemical evidence from turbiditic sandstones, J. Geol, 1987.

. Soc, , vol.144, pp.531-542

S. Gao and K. H. Wedepohl, The negative Eu anomaly in Archean sedimentary rocks: Implications 705 for decomposition, age and importance of their granitic sources, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.133, pp.81-94, 1995.

F. Gauthier-lafaye, Time constraint for the occurrence of uranium deposits and natural 708 nuclear fission reactors in the Paleoproterozoic Franceville Basin (Gabon), 2006.

. Mem, , vol.198, pp.157-167

F. Gauthier-lafaye, Les gisements d'uranium du Gabon et les reacteurs d'Oklo.Modèle 711 métallogénique de gîtes à fortes teneurs du protérozoique inférieur, 1986.

F. Gauthier-lafaye and F. Weber, Natural nuclear fission reactors: time constraints for 714 occurrence, and their relation to uranium and manganese deposits and to the evolution of 715 the atmosphere, Precambrian Res, vol.120, issue.02, pp.163-171, 2003.

F. Gauthier-lafaye and F. Weber, The Francevillian (Lower Proterozoic) uranium ore deposits of 718, 1989.

. Gabon, Econ. Geol, vol.84, pp.2267-2285

S. Ghosh, S. De, and J. Mukhopadhyay, Provenance of >2.8 Ga Keonjhar Quartzite, Singhbhum 720 Craton, Eastern India: Implications for the Nature of Mesoarchean Upper Crust, p.721, 2016.

, Geodynamics. J. Geol, vol.124, pp.331-351

M. F. Grisolia and E. P. Oliveira, Sediment provenance in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru 723 greenstone belt, Brazil, indicates deposition on arc settings with a hidden 2.17-2.25Ga 724 substrate, J. South Am. Earth Sci, vol.38, pp.89-109, 2012.

L. Harnois, The CIW index: A new chemical index of weathering, Sediment. Geol, vol.55, pp.90137-90143, 1988.

C. Haubensack, Environnement des grès protérozo?ques et des indices uranifères du secteur 728, 1981.

. Kiéné-dans-le-bassin-de-franceville, Aspects sédimentologiques et 729 géochimiques

M. M. Herron, Geochemical Classification of Terrigenous Sands and Shales from Core or Log 731 Data, J. Sediment. Res, vol.58, pp.820-829, 1988.

K. Horie, H. Hidaka, and F. Gauthier-lafaye, U-Pb Zircon geochronology of the Franceville series at 733, 2005.

G. Bidoudouma, Presented at the Goldschmidt Conference Abstract, Geochimica et 734 Cosmochimica Acta, p.11

X. Jian, P. Guan, W. Zhang, and F. Feng, Geochemistry of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in 736 the northern Qaidam basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau: Implications for provenance and 737 weathering, Chem. Geol, pp.74-88, 2013.

J. A. Karhu and H. D. Holland, Carbon isotopes and the rise of atmospheric oxygen, Geology, vol.24, pp.739-867, 1996.

L. R. Kump, C. Junium, M. A. Arthur, A. Brasier, A. Fallick et al., Isotopic Evidence for Massive Oxidation of Organic Matter Following the Great 742 Oxidation Event, Science, vol.334, pp.1694-1696, 2011.

R. R. Large, I. Mukherjee, I. Zhukova, R. Corkrey, A. Stepanov et al., Role of 744 upper-most crustal composition in the evolution of the Precambrian ocean-atmosphere 745 system, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.487, pp.44-53, 2018.

P. Ledru, N. Eko, J. Dong, V. Johan, J. Prian et al., Structural and 747 metamorphic evolution of the Gabon Orogenic Belt: Collision tectonics in the lower 748 proterozoic?, Precambrian Res, vol.44, pp.90046-90052, 1989.

A. Maheshwari, A. N. Sial, C. Gaucher, J. Bossi, A. Bekker et al., 750 Global nature of the Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi carbon isotope excursion: A review of 751 occurrences in Brazil, India, and Uruguay, Precambrian Res., Precambrian Isotope 752 Stratigraphy, vol.182, pp.274-299, 2010.

A. P. Martin, D. J. Condon, A. R. Prave, and A. Lepland, A review of temporal constraints for the 754 Palaeoproterozoic large, vol.755, 2013.

, Event). Earth-Sci. Rev, vol.127, pp.242-261

A. P. Martin, A. R. Prave, D. J. Condon, A. Lepland, A. E. Fallick et al., , p.757

D. V. Rychanchik, Multiple Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes and excursions, 758 Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.424, pp.226-236, 2015.

H. Martin, R. H. Smithies, R. Rapp, J. Moyen, and D. Champion, An overview of adakite, 760 tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG), and sanukitoid: relationships and some 761 implications for crustal evolution, Lithos, vol.79, pp.1-24, 2005.


R. Mathieu, L. Zetterström, M. Cuney, F. Gauthier-lafaye, and H. Hidaka, Alteration of monazite 764 and zircon and lead migration as geochemical tracers of fluid paleocirculations around the 765, 2001.

, Bangombé natural nuclear reaction zones

, Chem. Geol, vol.171, pp.147-171

W. F. Mcdonough and S. Sun, Chemical Evolution 768 of the Mantle, Chem. Geol, vol.120, pp.223-253, 1995.

S. M. Mclennan, Rare earth elements in sedimentary rocks; influence of provenance and 770 sedimentary processes, Rev. Mineral. Geochem, vol.21, pp.169-200, 1989.

S. M. Mclennan, B. Bock, S. R. Hemming, J. A. Hurowitz, S. M. Lev et al., The roles of 772 provenance and sedimentary processes in the geochemistry of sedimentary rocks, in: 773 Geochemistry of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks: Evolutionary Considerations to Mineral 774 Deposit-Forming Environments. Geological Association of Canada, pp.7-38, 2003.

S. M. Mclennan and S. Hemming, Samarium/neodymium elemental and isotopic systematics in 776 sedimentary rocks, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.56, issue.92, p.90034, 1992.

S. M. Mclennan, S. Hemming, D. K. Mcdaniel, and G. N. Hanson, Geochemical approaches to 779 sedimentation, provenance, and tectonics, 1993.

, , pp.21-40

S. M. Mclennan, S. R. Taylor, S. Hemming, and R. , Composition, differentiation, and evolution of 782 continental crust: Constraints from sedimentary rocks and heat flow, Evolution and 783 Differentiation of the Continental Crust, pp.92-134, 2006.

S. M. Mclennan, S. R. Taylor, M. T. Mcculloch, and J. B. Maynard, Geochemical and Nd?Sr isotopic 785 composition of deep-sea turbidites: Crustal evolution and plate tectonic associations, 1990.

, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.54, 2015.

I. M. Mouélé, P. Dudoignon, A. El-albani, A. Meunier, P. Boulvais et al., 2.9-1.9Ga paleoalterations of Archean granitic basement of 789 the Franceville basin (Gabon), J. Afr. Earth Sci, vol.97, pp.244-260, 2014.


H. W. Nesbitt and G. M. Young, Prediction of some weathering trends of plutonic and volcanic 792 rocks based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.48, pp.1523-1534, 1984.

H. W. Nesbitt and G. M. Young, Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major 795 element chemistry of lutites, Nature, vol.299, pp.715-717, 1982.

L. Ngombi-pemba, A. E. Albani, A. Meunier, O. Grauby, and F. Gauthier-lafaye, From detrital 797 heritage to diagenetic transformations, the message of clay minerals contained within shales 798 of the Palaeoproterozoic Francevillian basin (Gabon), Precambrian Res, vol.255, pp.63-76, 2014.


B. Öhlander, J. Ingri, M. Land, and H. Schöberg, Change of Sm-Nd isotope composition during 801 weathering of till, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.64, issue.99, pp.365-373, 2000.

E. P. Oliveira, N. J. Mcnaughton, and R. Armstrong, Mesoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic growth of 804 the northern segment of the Itabuna-Salvador-Curaçá orogen, 2010.

, Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ, vol.338, pp.263-286

F. Ossa-ossa, B. Eickmann, A. Hofmann, N. J. Planavsky, D. Asael et al., Two-807 step deoxygenation at the end of the Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi Event, Earth Planet. Sci, 2018.

. Lett, , vol.486, pp.70-83

F. Ossa-ossa, A. Hofmann, C. Ballouard, C. Voster, R. Schoenberg et al., , p.810

A. Bekker, Constraining provenance for the uraniferous Paleoproterozoic Francevillian 811 Group sediments (Gabon) with detrital zircon geochronology and geochemistry, 2020.

G. V. Ovchinnikova, A. B. Kuznetsov, V. A. Melezhik, I. M. Gorokhov, I. M. Vasil'eva et al., , p.814

B. M. , Pb-Pb age of Jatulian carbonate rocks: The Tulomozero Formation of southeast 815, 2007.

. Karelia, Stratigr. Geol. Correl, vol.15, pp.359-372

F. Pambo, Conditions de formation des carbonates de manganese Proterozoiques et analyse 817 mineralogy et geochimigues des minerals a bioxydes de manganese associes dans le 818 gisement de Moanda, 2004.

A. Préat, P. Bouton, D. Thiéblemont, J. Prian, S. S. Ndounze et al., , p.820, 2011.

, Paleoproterozoic high ?13C dolomites from the Lastoursville and Franceville basins

. Gabon, Stratigraphic and synsedimentary subsidence implications, Precambrian Res, vol.189, pp.212-228

L. A. Reis, M. A. Martins-neto, N. S. Gomes, I. Endo, H. Jordt-evangelista et al., A BACIA DE 824, 2002.

, Bras. Geociências, vol.32, pp.27-42

J. Reynaud, A. Trentesaux, A. E. Albani, J. Aubineau, L. Ngombi-pemba et al., Depositional setting of the 2·1 Ga Francevillian 828 macrobiota (Gabon): Rapid mud settling in a shallow basin swept by high-density sand flows, 829 Sedimentology, vol.65, pp.670-701, 2017.

M. Roddaz, J. Viers, S. Brusset, P. Baby, C. Boucayrand et al., Controls on weathering 831 and provenance in the Amazonian foreland basin: Insights from major and trace element 832 geochemistry of Neogene Amazonian sediments, Chem. Geol, vol.226, pp.31-65, 2006.


H. Rollison, Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation, 1993.

B. P. Roser and R. J. Korsch, Provenance signatures of sandstone-mudstone suites determined 836 using discriminant function analysis of major-element data, Chem. Geol, vol.67, pp.119-139, 1988.

, , pp.90010-90011

B. P. Roser and R. J. Korsch, Determination of Tectonic Setting of Sandstone-Mudstone Suites 839 Using SiO2 Content and K2O/Na2O Ratio, J. Geol, vol.94, pp.635-650, 1986.

Y. Sawaki, M. Moussavou, T. Sato, K. Suzuki, C. Ligna et al., Chronological constraints on the Paleoproterozoic Francevillian, vol.842, 2017.

, Group in Gabon. Geosci. Front., Frontiers in Early Earth History and Primordial Life-Part I 8, pp.844-397

E. Schneiderhan, U. Zimmermann, J. Gutzmer, K. Mezger, and R. Armstrong, Sedimentary 846 Provenance of the Neoarchean Ventersdorp Supergroup, Southern Africa: Shedding Light on 847 the Evolution of the Kaapvaal Craton during the Neoarchean, J. Geol, vol.119, pp.575-596, 2011.

K. Sugitani, F. Yamashita, T. Nagaoka, K. Yamamoto, M. Minami et al., 850 Geochemistry and sedimentary petrology of Archean clastic sedimentary rocks at Mt, 2006.

P. Goldsworthy, W. Craton, and . Australia, Evidence for the early evolution of 852 continental crust and hydrothermal alteration, Precambrian Res, vol.147, pp.124-147


S. R. Taylor and S. M. Mclennan, The continental crust: Its evolution and composition, 1985.

D. Thiéblemont, P. Bouton, A. Préat, J. Goujou, M. Tegyey et al., , p.856

J. L. Treuil and M. , Transition from alkaline to calc-alkaline volcanism during evolution of 857 the Paleoproterozoic Francevillian basin of eastern Gabon (Western Central Africa), J. Afr. 858 Earth Sci., Special, vol.99, pp.215-227, 2014.


D. Thiéblemont, C. Castaing, M. Billa, P. Bouton, and A. Préat, Notice explicative de la carte 861 géologique et des ressources minerales de la Republique Gabonaise, 2009.

F. Weber, Une série précambrienne du Gabon: le Francevillien, sédimentologie, géochimie, 863 relations avec les gîtes minéraux, 1968.

F. Weber, F. Gauthier-lafaye, H. Whitechurch, M. Ulrich, and A. El-albani, The 2-Ga Eburnean 865 Orogeny in Gabon and the opening of the Francevillian intracratonic basins: A review, 2016.

G. Comptes-rendus, , vol.348, pp.572-586

H. Yang, K. Kyser, and K. Ansdell, Geochemical and Nd isotopic compositions of the 868 metasedimentary rocks in the La Ronge Domain, Precambrian Res, vol.92, pp.37-64, 1998.