W. B. Abebe, W. J. Douven, M. Mccartney, and J. Leentvaar, EIA implementation and follow up: a case study of Koga irrigation and watershed management project Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, 2007.

V. Acocella and R. Funiciello, Transverse systems along the extensional Tyrrhenian margin of central Italy and their influence on volcanism, Tectonics, issue.2, p.25, 2006.


M. Alemayehu, H. F. Zhang, and S. Aulbach, Evaluation of mantle processes in an extensional regime: Insight from in situ O and Sr isotope systematics of mantle xenoliths from Ethiopia, The Journal of Geology, vol.124, issue.5, pp.603-616, 2016.

M. Alemayehu, H. F. Zhang, and P. A. Sakyi, Nature and evolution of lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Ethiopian rift zone: evidence from petrology and geochemistry of mantle xenoliths, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.106, issue.3, pp.939-958, 2017.

E. V. Artyushkov, Stresses in the lithosphere caused by crustal thickness inhomogeneities, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.78, issue.32, pp.7675-7708, 1973.

K. G. Bemis and M. Ferencz, Morphometric analysis of scoria cones: the potential for inferring process from shape, Geological Society, vol.446, issue.1, pp.61-100, 2017.

M. H. Benoit, A. A. Nyblade, and M. E. Pasyanos, Crustal thinning between the Ethiopian and East African plateaus from modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.33, issue.13, 2006.

E. Beutel, J. Van-wijk, C. Ebinger, D. Keir, and A. Agostini, Formation and stability of magmatic segments in the Main Ethiopian and Afar rifts, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.293, issue.3-4, pp.225-235, 2010.

S. Boccaletti, J. Bragard, F. T. Arecchi, and H. Mancini, Synchronization in nonidentical extended systems, Physical Review Letters, vol.83, issue.3, p.536, 1999.

M. Bonini, G. Corti, F. Innocenti, P. Manetti, F. Mazzarini et al., Evolution of the Main Ethiopian Rift in the frame of Afar and Kenya rifts propagation, Tectonics, vol.24, 2005.

W. Bosworth, Mesozoic and Early Tertiary rift tectonics in East Africa, Tectonophysics, vol.209, pp.115-137, 1992.

M. H. Bott, Ridge push and associated plate interior stress in normal and hot spot regions, Tectonophysics, vol.200, issue.1-3, pp.17-32, 1991.

P. Brotzu, L. Morbidelli, M. Nicoletti, E. M. Piccirillo, and G. Traversa, Miocene to Quaternary volcanism in eastern Kenya: sequence and geochronology, Tectonophysics, vol.101, issue.1-2, pp.75-86, 1984.

S. Brune, Evolution of stress and fault patterns in oblique rift systems: 3-D numerical lithospheric-scale experiments from rift to breakup, Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems, vol.15, issue.8, pp.3392-3415, 2014.

S. Brune, G. Corti, and G. Ranalli, Controls of inherited lithospheric heterogeneity on rift linkage: Numerical and analogue models of interaction between the Kenyan and Ethiopian rifts across the Turkana depression, Tectonics, vol.36, issue.9, pp.1767-1786, 2017.

W. R. Buck, Modes of continental lithospheric extension, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.96, issue.B12, pp.20161-20178, 1991.

W. R. Buck, The role of magma in the development of the Afro-Arabian Rift System, vol.259, pp.43-54, 2006.

A. Casagli, M. L. Frezzotti, A. Peccerillo, M. Tiepolo, and G. De-astis, (Garnet)-spinel peridotite xenoliths from Mega (Ethiopia): Evidence for rejuvenation and dynamic thinning of the lithosphere beneath the southern Main Ethiopian Rift, Chemical Geology, vol.455, pp.231-248, 2017.

M. Casey, C. Ebinger, D. Keir, R. Gloaguen, and F. Mohamed, Strain accommodation in transitional rifts: Extension by magma intrusion and faulting in Ethiopian rift magmatic segments, vol.259, pp.143-163, 2006.

T. J. Charsley, Government of Kenya, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Mines and Geological Department, 1988.

J. Chorowicz, The East African Rift System, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.43, issue.1-3, pp.379-410, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00020103

S. Conticelli, M. F. Sintoni, T. Abebe, F. Mazzarini, and P. Manetti, Petrology and geochemistry of ultramafic xenoliths and host lavas from the Ethiopian Volcanic Province: An insight into the upper mantle under eastern, Africa. Acta Vulcanologica, vol.11, issue.1, pp.143-160, 1999.

G. Corti, M. Bonini, D. Sokoutis, F. Innocenti, P. Manetti et al., Continental rift architecture and patterns of magma migration: A dynamic analysis based on centrifuge models, Tectonics, issue.2, p.23, 2004.

G. Corti, Control of rift obliquity on the evolution and segmentation of the main Ethiopian rift, Nature Geoscience, vol.1, pp.258-262, 2008.

G. Corti, Continental rift evolution: from rift initiation to incipient break-up in the Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa. Earth-Science Reviews, vol.96, issue.1-2, pp.1-53, 2009.

G. Corti, R. Cioni, Z. Franceschini, F. Sani, S. Scaillet et al., Aborted propagation of the Ethiopian rift caused by linkage with the Kenyan rift, Nature communications, vol.10, 1309.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02078073

C. Demets and S. Merkouriev, High-resolution estimates of Nubia-Somalia plate motion since 20 Ma from reconstructions of the Southwest Indian Ridge, 2016.

, Geophysical Journal International, vol.207, issue.1, pp.317-332

D. Silva, S. Lindsay, and J. M. , Chapter 15 -Primary volcanic landforms, The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, pp.273-297, 2015.

C. J. Ebinger, T. Yemane, D. J. Harding, S. Tesfaye, S. Kelley et al., Rift deflection, migration, and propagation: Linkage of the Ethiopian and Eastern rifts, Africa. GSA Bull, vol.112, issue.2, pp.163-176, 2000.

C. J. Ebinger and M. Casey, Continental breakup in magmatic provinces: An Ethiopian example, Geology, vol.29, issue.6, pp.527-530, 2001.

L. Emishaw and M. G. Abdelsalam, Development of late Jurassic-early Paleogene and Neogene-Quaternary rifts within the Turkana Depression, East Africa from Satellite Gravity Data. Tectonics, vol.38, issue.7, pp.2358-2377, 2019.

A. Erbello and T. Kidane, Timing of volcanism and initiation of rifting in the Omo-Turkana depression, southwest Ethiopia: Evidence from paleomagnetism, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.139, pp.319-329, 2018.

L. Fleitout and C. Froidevaux, Tectonics and topography for a lithosphere containing density heterogeneities, Tectonics, vol.1, issue.1, pp.21-56, 1982.

K. Fontijn, K. Mcnamara, A. Z. Tadesse, D. M. Pyle, F. Dessalegn et al., Contrasting styles of post-caldera volcanism along the Main Ethiopian Rift: Implications for contemporary volcanic hazards, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.356, pp.90-113, 2018.

A. Fornaciai, M. Favalli, D. Karátson, S. Tarquini, and E. Boschi, Morphometry of scoria cones, and their relation to geodynamic setting: a DEM-based analysis, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, pp.56-72, 2012.

D. A. Foster and A. J. Gleadow, Structural framework and denudation history of the flanks of the Kenya and Anza Rifts, East Africa. Tectonics, vol.15, issue.2, pp.258-271, 1996.

M. G. Gómez-vasconcelos, J. Luis-macías, D. R. Avellán, G. Sosa-ceballos, V. H. Garduño-monroy et al., The control of preexisting faults on the distribution, morphology, and volume of monogenetic volcanism in the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field, 2020.

A. H. Graettinger, Trends in maar crater size and shape using the global Maar Volcano Location and Shape (MaarVLS) database, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.357, pp.1-13, 2018.

M. B. Haag, W. A. Baez, C. A. Sommer, J. M. Arnosio, and R. E. Filipovich, , 2019.

, Geomorphology and spatial distribution of monogenetic volcanoes in the southern Puna Plateau (NW Argentina), Geomorphology, vol.342, pp.196-209

B. D. Hackman, T. J. Charsley, R. M. Key, and A. F. Wilkinson, The development of the East African Rift system in north-central Kenya, Tectonophysics, vol.184, issue.2, pp.189-211, 1990.

N. J. Hayward and C. J. Ebinger, Variations in the along-axis segmentation of the Afar Rift system, Tectonics, vol.15, issue.2, pp.244-257, 1996.

J. A. Hunt, T. A. Mather, and D. M. Pyle, Morphological comparison of distributed volcanic fields in the Main Ethiopian Rift using high-resolution digital elevation models, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.393, 2020.

W. Hutchison, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, J. Biggs, and G. Yirgu, Structural controls on fluid pathways in an active rift system: A case study of the Aluto volcanic complex, Geosphere, vol.11, issue.3, pp.542-562, 2015.

W. Hutchison, R. Fusillo, D. M. Pyle, T. A. Mather, J. D. Blundy et al., A pulse of mid-Pleistocene rift volcanism in Ethiopia at the dawn of modern humans, Nature communications, vol.7, 2016.

G. Iaffaldano, R. Hawkins, and M. Sambridge, Bayesian noise-reduction in, 2014.

, Arabia/Somalia and Nubia/Arabia finite rotations since ?20 Ma: Implications for Nubia/Somalia relative motion, Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems, vol.15, issue.4, pp.845-854

T. N. Irvine and W. R. Baragar, A Guide to the Chemical Classification of the Common Volcanic Rocks, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.8, issue.5, pp.523-548, 1971.

I. Isola, F. Mazzarini, G. Corti, and M. Bonini, Spatial variability of volcanic features in early-stage rift settings: the case of the Tanzania divergence, East African rift system, Terra Nova, vol.26, issue.6, pp.461-468, 2014.

M. C. Jaimes-viera, A. M. Del-pozzo, P. W. Layer, J. A. Benowitz, and A. Nieto-torres, Timing the evolution of a monogenetic volcanic field: Sierra Chichinautzin, Central Mexico, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.356, pp.225-242, 2018.

D. Keir, I. D. Bastow, G. Corti, F. Mazzarini, and T. O. Rooney, The origin of along-rift variations in faulting and magmatism in the Ethiopian rift, Tectonics, vol.34, issue.3, pp.464-477, 2015.

G. Kereszturi and K. Németh, Monogenetic basaltic volcanoes: genetic classification, growth, geomorphology and degradation, Updates in Volcanology -New Advances in Understanding Volcanic Systems, pp.3-88, 2012.

G. Kereszturi, K. Németh, S. J. Cronin, J. Agustín-flores, I. E. Smith et al., A model for calculating eruptive volumes for monogenetic volcanoes-Implication for the Quaternary Auckland Volcanic Field, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.266, pp.16-33, 2013.

M. Kervyn, G. G. Ernst, J. C. Carracedo, and P. Jacobs, Geomorphometric variability of -monogenetic? volcanic cones: Evidence from Mauna Kea, Lanzarote and experimental cones, Geomorphology, vol.136, issue.1, pp.59-75, 2012.

T. Kurz, R. Gloaguen, C. Ebinger, M. Casey, and B. Abebe, Deformation distribution and type in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER): a remote sensing study, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.48, pp.100-114, 2007.

L. Corvec, N. Spörli, K. B. Rowland, J. Lindsay, and J. , Spatial distribution and alignments of volcanic centers: Clues to the formation of monogenetic volcanic fields, Earth-Science Reviews, vol.124, pp.96-114, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01863140

R. W. Le-maitre, A. Streckeisen, B. Zanettin, M. J. Le-bas, and B. Bonin,

, Igneous rocks: a classification and glossary of terms: recommendations of the International Union of Geological Sciences Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks, pp.30-39

R. Lloyd, J. Biggs, Y. Birhanu, M. Wilks, J. Kendall et al., Sustained Uplift at a Continental Rift Caldera, Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth, vol.123, issue.6, pp.5209-5226, 2018.

V. Lorenz, P. Suhr, and S. Suhr, Phreatomagmatic maar-diatreme volcanoes and their incremental growth: a model, Geological Society, vol.446, issue.1, pp.29-59, 2017.

C. M. Martin-jones, C. S. Lane, N. J. Pearce, V. C. Smith, H. F. Lamb et al., Recurrent explosive eruptions from a high-risk Main Ethiopian Rift volcano throughout the Holocene, Geology, vol.45, issue.12, pp.1127-1130, 2017.

F. Mazzarini and M. Orazio, Spatial distribution of cones and satellite-detected lineaments in the Pali Aike Volcanic Field (southernmost Patagonia): insights into the tectonic setting of a Neogene rift system, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.125, issue.3-4, pp.291-305, 2003.

F. Mazzarini and I. Isola, Monogenetic vent self-similar clustering in extending continental crust: Examples from the East African Rift System, Geosphere, vol.6, issue.5, pp.567-582, 2010.

F. Mazzarini, N. Le-corvec, I. Isola, and M. Favalli, Volcanic field elongation, vent distribution, and tectonic evolution of a continental rift: The Main Ethiopian Rift example, Geosphere, vol.12, issue.3, pp.706-720, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01863181

K. Mcnamara, K. V. Cashman, A. C. Rust, K. Fontijn, F. Chalié et al., Using Lake Sediment Cores to Improve Records of Volcanism at Aluto Volcano in the Main Ethiopian Rift, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol.19, issue.9, pp.3164-3188, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02352360

C. K. Morley, W. A. Wescott, D. M. Stone, R. M. Harper, S. T. Wigger et al., , 1992.

, Tectonic evolution of the northern Kenyan Rift, Journal of the Geological Society, vol.149, issue.3, pp.333-348

C. K. Morley, W. A. Wescott, D. M. Stone, R. M. Harper, S. T. Wigger et al., Chapter 2 -Geology and Geophysics of the Western Turkana Basins, AAPG Studies in Geology, issue.44, pp.19-54, 1999.

J. D. Muirhead, S. A. Kattenhorn, and N. Le-corvec, Varying styles of magmatic strain accommodation across the East African Rift. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol.16, pp.2775-2795, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01863167

K. Németh, C. Risso, F. Nullo, and G. Kereszturi, The role of collapsing and cone rafting on eruption style changes and final cone morphology: Los Morados scoria cone, Central European Journal of Geosciences, vol.3, issue.2, pp.102-118, 2011.

K. Németh and G. Kereszturi, Monogenetic volcanism: personal views and discussion, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.104, issue.8, pp.2131-2146, 2015.

A. Orlando, T. Abebe, P. Manetti, A. P. Santo, and G. Corti, Petrology of mantle xenoliths from Megado and Dilo, Kenya rift, southern Ethiopia, Ofioliti, vol.31, issue.2, pp.71-87, 2006.

F. J. Paez, Study of the erosion of the monogenic basalt volcanoes of El Cerrillar, Guamasa and Enmedio, Tenerife. Canaries. Spain). Boletin De La Asociacion De Geografos Espanoles, issue.42, pp.285-301, 2006.

J. D. Paez, The cinder cones of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain): implications for volcanic hazard and volcanic risk. Scripta Nova-Revista Electronica de Geografia, Ciencias Sociales, vol.14, issue.324, 2010.

H. Pinkerton and L. Wilson, Factors controlling the lengths of channel-fed lava flows, vol.56, pp.108-120, 1994.

L. Pioli, E. Erlund, E. Johnson, K. Cashman, P. Wallace et al., Explosive dynamics of violent Strombolian eruptions: The eruption of Parícutin Volcano 1943-1952 (Mexico), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.271, pp.359-368, 2008.

S. C. Porter, Distribution, morphology and size frequency of cinder cones on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. GSA Bull, vol.83, issue.12, p.83, 1972.

T. O. Rooney, Geochemical evidence of lithospheric thinning in the southern Main Ethiopian Rift, Lithos, vol.117, issue.1-4, pp.33-48, 2010.

T. O. Rooney, I. D. Bastow, and D. Keir, Insights into extensional processes during magma assisted rifting: Evidence from aligned scoria cones, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.201, issue.1-4, pp.83-96, 2011.

E. Saria, E. Calais, D. S. Stamps, D. Delvaux, and C. J. Hartnady, Present-day kinematics of the East African Rift, J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth, vol.119, issue.4, pp.3584-3600, 2014.

R. Saucedo, J. L. Macías, Y. Z. Ocampo-díaz, W. Gómez-villa, E. Rivera-olguín et al., Mixed magmatic-phreatomagmatic explosions during the formation of the Joya Honda maar, vol.446, pp.255-279, 2017.

S. Scaillet, Numerical error analysis in 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating, Chemical Geology, vol.162, pp.149-156, 2000.

S. Scaillet, S. G. Rotolo, S. La-felice, and G. Vita-scaillet, , 2011.

, Ar/ 39 Ar chronostratigraphy of the post-caldera (<20 ka) volcanic activity at Pantelleria, Sicily Strait, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.309, issue.3-4, pp.280-290

D. J. Shillington, C. L. Scott, T. A. Minshull, R. A. Edwards, P. J. Brown et al., , 2009.

, Abrupt transition from magma-starved to magma-rich rifting in the eastern Black Sea, Geology, vol.37, issue.1, pp.7-10

R. Shinjo, T. Chekol, D. Meshesha, T. Itaya, and T. Tatsumi, Geochemistry and geochronology of the mafic lavas from the southeastern Ethiopian rift (the East African Rift System): assessment of models on magma sources, plume-lithosphere interaction and plume evolution, Contrib Mineral Petrol, vol.162, pp.209-230, 2011.

M. Siegburg, T. M. Gernon, J. M. Bull, D. Keir, D. N. Barfod et al., Geological evolution of the Boset-Bericha Volcanic Complex, Main Ethiopian Rift: 40Ar/39Ar evidence for episodic Pleistocene to Holocene volcanism, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.351, pp.115-133, 2017.

J. Sippel, C. Meeßen, M. Cacace, J. Mechie, S. Fishwick et al., The Kenya rift revisited: insights into lithospheric strength through data-driven 3-D gravity and thermal modelling, Solid Earth, vol.8, issue.1, pp.45-81, 2017.

F. J. Spera, Chapter 7 -Aspects of magma transport, Physics of magmatic processes, pp.265-315, 1980.

M. R. Strecker and W. Bosworth, Stress field changes in the Africo-Arabian rift system during the Miocene to Recent period, Tectonophysics, vol.278, issue.1-4, pp.47-72, 1997.

A. Z. Tadesse, D. Ayalew, R. Pik, G. Yirgu, and K. Fontijn, Magmatic evolution of the Boku Volcanic Complex, Main Ethiopian Rift, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.149, pp.109-130, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02394249

D. L. Turcotte and G. Schubert, Geodynamics, p.456, 2002.

W. Vetel and B. Gall, Dynamics of prolonged continental extension in magmatic rifts: the Turkana Rift case study (North Kenya), Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ, vol.259, issue.1, pp.209-233, 2006.

G. Wadge, J. Biggs, R. Lloyd, and J. M. Kendall, Historical volcanism and the state of stress in the East African Rift System, Frontiers in Earth Science, vol.4, 2016.

R. T. Watkins, The geology of the Suregei-Asille District and the Upper Bakate Valley, northern Kenya, 1983.

R. White and D. Mckenzie, Magmatism at rift zones: The generation of volcanic continental margins and flood basalts, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.94, issue.B6, pp.7685-7729, 1989.

R. S. White, L. K. Smith, A. W. Roberts, P. A. Christie, and N. J. Kusznir, Lower-crustal intrusion on the North Atlantic continental margin, and the rest of the iSIMM Team, vol.452, pp.460-464, 2008.

S. M. White, J. A. Crisp, and F. J. Spera, Long-term volumetric eruption rates and magma budgets, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst, vol.7, issue.3, 2006.

J. D. White and P. S. Ross, Maar-diatreme volcanoes: A review, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.201, issue.1-4, pp.1-29, 2011.

M. J. Wilson, Igneous Petrogenesis -A global tectonic approach, p.465, 2007.

G. Woldetinsae and H. J. Götze, Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas, J. Afr. Earth Sci, vol.41, issue.1-2, pp.103-117, 2005.

C. A. Wood, Morphometric analysis of cinder cone degradation, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.8, issue.2-4, pp.137-160, 1980.

T. J. Wright, F. Sigmundsson, C. Pagli, M. Belachew, I. J. Hamling et al., Geophysical constraints on the dynamics of spreading centres from rifting episodes on land, Nature Geoscience, vol.5, issue.4, pp.242-250, 2012.