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The Ab-Bagh Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous sediment-hosted Zn-Pb deposit, Sanandaj-Sirjan zone of Iran: Ore geology, fluid inclusions and (S-Sr) isotopes

Abstract : The Ab-Bagh clastic-and carbonate-hosted stratabound and stratiform Zn-Pb deposit in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, in the southeastern corner of the Malayer-Esfahan metallogenic belt of Iran, is typical of several sedi-mentary-exhalative (SEDEX) deposits in this metallogenic belt. The deposit is hosted in a late Jurassic-early Cretaceous sedimentary sequence. Based on position, there are two Zn-Pb-bearing stratigraphic ore horizons. Ore horizon 1 is hosted by late Jurassic-early Cretaceous black shale and siltstone. The wedge-shaped ore body is located close to a synsedimentary normal fault. Petrographic studies indicates that mineralization comprises three sulfide ore facies: stockwork, bedded and massive ore facies. Ore horizon 2 occurs in early Cretaceous carbonates and comprises a massive-replacement ore facies that is concordant with host rock layering; it is also underlain by a stockwork facies. Textures include framboidal, laminated, breccia, replacement, massive and vein-veinlet. Hypogene sulfide minerals are predominantly sphalerite, galena, pyrite and chalcopyrite. Calcite and quartz are major gangue minerals. Silicification and carbonatization are the main wallrock alteration styles; alteration intensity increases towards the feeder zone. Based on relationships between ore minerals and rock-forming minerals, sulfide mineralization in the Ab-Bagh deposit formed during two main stages: fine-grained sulfide bands (stage I) are intricately interlayered with organic matter-rich beds of black shale and siltstone. Sulfide bands exhibit classic sedimentary textures, such as laminations and bedding, indicative of a synsedi-mentary origin. Coarser-grained stage II base metal sulfides show breccia and vein-veinlet textures, and are considered to have formed by replacement during sub-seafloor fluid flow. Fluid inclusion microthermometry was carried out on calcite associated with sulfides of the stockwork ore facies. Homogenization temperatures are in the range of 180-301°C, and the average salinity is 17.93 wt% NaCl eq. The size distribution of pyrite framboids of the bedded ore, geochemistry of host rock and presence of organic matter, collectively suggest anoxic to locally suboxic ambient conditions for the host basin. The δ 34 S composition of pyrite, sphalerite, and galena ranges from −5.08 to +4.51‰. The highest δ 34 S values are from massive and stockwork ore facies (+2.66 to + 4.51‰) and the lowest from bedded ore (−5.08 to −4.72‰). In the bedded ore facies, the main sulfur source was bacterially reduced seawater sulfate. Whereas in massive and stockwork ore facies, thermochemically reduced seawater sulfate was the main source of sulfur. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of calcite indicate that origin of ore forming fluids is Paleozoic radiogenic basement. Collectively, the isotopic, sedimentological, textural, miner-alogical, fluid inclusion, and geochemical data for the Ab-Bagh deposit support a vent-proximal sub-seafloor replacement SEDEX ore deposit.
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Mehdi Movahednia, Ebrahim Rastad, Abdorrahman Rajabi, Sajjad Maghfouri, Francisco J González, et al.. The Ab-Bagh Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous sediment-hosted Zn-Pb deposit, Sanandaj-Sirjan zone of Iran: Ore geology, fluid inclusions and (S-Sr) isotopes. Ore Geology Reviews, Elsevier, 2020, 121, pp.103484. ⟨10.1016/j.oregeorev.2020.103484⟩. ⟨insu-02536429⟩



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