M. M. Abdelmalak, R. Mourgues, O. Galland, and D. Bureau, Fracture mode analysis and related surface deformation during dyke intrusion: Results from 2D experimental modelling, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, pp.93-105, 2012.

L. M. Agirrezabala, A. Permanyer, I. Suárez-ruiz, and C. Dorronsoro, Contact metamorphism of organic-rich mudstones and carbon release around a magmatic sill in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, western Pyrenees, Organic Geochemistry, vol.69, pp.26-35, 2014.

T. Ágústsdóttir, J. Woods, T. Greenfield, R. G. Green, R. S. White et al., Strike-slip faulting during the 2014 Bároarbunga-Holuhraun dike intrusion, central Iceland, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.43, pp.1495-1503, 2016.

G. Airoldi, J. D. Muirhead, E. Zanella, and J. D. White, Emplacement process of Ferrar Dolerite sheets at Allan Hills (South Victoria Land, Antarctica) inferred from magnetic fabric, Geophysical Journal International, vol.188, pp.1046-1060, 2012.

R. W. Allmendinger, N. Cardozo, and D. Fisher, Structural geology algorithms: Vectors and tensors in structural geology, 2011.

C. Annen, Implications of incremental emplacement of magma bodies for magma differentiation, thermal aureole dimensions and plutonism-volcanism relationships, Tectonophysics, vol.500, pp.3-10, 2011.

L. P. Baumgartner, M. Germany, and J. W. Valley, Stable isotope transport and contact metamorphic fluid flow, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol.43, pp.415-467, 2001.

F. Bégué, L. P. Baumgartner, A. S. Bouvier, and M. Robyr, Reactive fluid infiltration along fractures: Textural observations coupled to in-situ isotopic analyses, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.519, pp.264-273, 2019.

H. S. Bertelsen, B. D. Rogers, O. Galland, G. Dumazer, and A. Benanni, Laboratory modeling of coeval brittle and ductile deformation during magma emplacement into viscoelastic rocks, Frontiers in Earth Science, vol.6, 2018.

J. Biggs, S. K. Ebmeier, W. P. Aspinall, Z. Lu, M. E. Pritchard et al., Global link between deformation and volcanic eruption quantified by satellite imagery, Nature Communications, 2014.

J. P. Chadwick, V. R. Troll, C. Ginibre, D. Morgan, R. Gertisser et al., Carbonate assimilation at Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia: Insights from crystal isotope stratigraphy, Journal of Petrology, vol.48, pp.1793-1812, 2007.

L. Chanceaux and T. Menand, Solidification effects on sill formation: An experimental approach, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.403, pp.79-88, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01131784

L. Chanceaux and T. Menand, The effects of solidification on sill propagation dynamics and morphology, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.442, pp.39-50, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01638686

R. M. Currier and B. D. Marsh, Mapping real time growth of experimental laccoliths: The effect of solidification on the mechanics of magmatic intrusion, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.302, pp.211-224, 2015.

T. Dahm, On the shape and velocity of fluid-filled fractures in the Earth, Geophysical Journal International, vol.142, pp.181-192, 2000.

M. J. Daines and M. Pec, Migration of melt, Encyclopedia of volcanoes, pp.49-64, 2015.

L. Dallai, C. Freda, and M. Gaeta, Oxygen isotope geochemistry of pyroclastic clinopyroxene monitors carbonate contributions to Roman-type ultrapotassic magmas, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol.148, pp.247-263, 2004.

K. A. Daniels, J. Kavanagh, T. Menand, R. S. Sparks, K. A. Daniels et al., The shapes of dikes: Evidence for the influence of cooling and inelastic deformation, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.124, pp.1102-1112, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00720251

N. J. De-winter and P. Claeys, Micro X-ray fluorescence (?XRF) line scanning on Cretaceous rudist bivalves: A new method for reproducible trace element profiles in bivalve calcite, Sedimentology, vol.64, pp.231-251, 2017.

N. J. De-winter, M. Sinnesael, C. Makarona, S. Vansteenberge, and P. Claeys, Trace element analyses of carbonates using portable and micro-X-ray fluorescence: Performance and optimization of measurement parameters and strategies, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol.32, pp.1211-1223, 2017.

F. M. Deegan, V. R. Troll, C. Freda, V. Misiti, J. P. Chadwick et al., Magma carbonate interaction processes and associated CO 2 release at Merapi Volcano, Indonesia: Insights from experimental petrology, Journal of Petrology, vol.51, pp.1027-1051, 2010.

P. T. Delaney and D. D. Pollard, Deformation of host rocks and flow of magma during growth of minette dikes and breccia-bearing intrusions near ship rock, 1981.

P. T. Delaney, D. D. Pollard, J. I. Ziony, and E. H. Mckee, Field relations between dikes and joints: emplacement processes and paleostress analysis, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.91, pp.4920-4938, 1986.

A. Delcamp, . Van-wyk-de, B. Vries, P. Stéphane, and M. Kervyn, Endogenous and exogenous growth of the monogenetic Lemptégy volcano, vol.10, pp.998-1019, 2014.

A. Demény and S. Harangi, Stable isotope studies and processes of carbonate formation in Hungarian alkali basalts and lamprophyres: Evolution of magmatic fluids and magma-sediment interactions, Lithos, vol.37, pp.29-30, 1996.

G. M. Dering, S. Micklethwaite, A. R. Cruden, S. J. Barnes, and M. L. Fiorentini, Evidence for dyke-parallel shear during syn-intrusion fracturing, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.507, pp.119-130, 2019.

G. M. Dering, S. Micklethwaite, S. T. Thiele, S. A. Vollgger, and A. R. Cruden, Review of drones, photogrammetry and emerging sensor technology for the study of dykes: Best practises and future potential, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.373, pp.148-166, 2019.

S. K. Ebmeier, B. J. Andrews, M. C. Araya, D. W. Arnold, J. Biggs et al., Synthesis of global satellite observations of magmatic and volcanic deformation: Implications for volcano monitoring & the lateral extent of magmatic domains, Journal of Applied Volcanology, vol.7, issue.1, pp.1-26, 2018.

Y. A. Fialko and A. M. Rubin, Thermodynamics of lateral dike propagation: Implications for crustal accretion at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.103, pp.2501-2514, 1998.

Y. A. Fialko and A. M. Rubin, Thermal and mechanical aspects of magma emplacement in giant dike swarms, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.104, pp.33-56, 1999.

R. H. Gabrielsen, J. P. Nystuen, and O. Olesen, Fault distribution in the Precambrian basement of South Norway, Journal of Structural Geology, vol.108, pp.269-289, 2018.

O. Galland, S. Burchardt, E. Hallot, R. Mourgues, and C. Bulois, Toward a unified dynamic model for dykes and cone sheets in volcanic systems 16, p.5468, 2014.

O. Galland, J. B. Spacapan, O. Rabbel, K. Mair, F. G. Soto et al., Structure, emplacement mechanism and magma-flow significance of igneous fingers-Implications for sill emplacement in sedimentary basins, Journal of Structural Geology, vol.124, pp.120-135, 2019.

M. Gerbault, R. Hassani, C. Novoa-lizama, and A. Souche, Three-dimensional failure patterns around an inflating magmatic chamber, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol.19, pp.749-771, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01745103

A. H. Graettinger, I. P. Skilling, D. Mcgarvie, and Á. Höskuldsson, Intrusion of basalt into frozen sediments and generation of Coherent-Margined Volcaniclastic Dikes (CMVDs), pp.30-38, 2012.

R. G. Green, T. Greenfield, and R. S. White, Triggered earthquakes suppressed by an evolving stress shadow from a propagating dyke, Nature Geoscience, vol.8, issue.8, pp.629-632, 2015.

A. Gudmundsson, Emplacement and arrest of sheets and dykes in central volcanoes, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.116, pp.226-229, 2002.

F. Guldstrand, S. Burchardt, E. Hallot, and O. Galland, Dynamics of surface deformation induced by dikes and cone sheets in a cohesive coulomb brittle crust, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.122, pp.8511-8524, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01621204

Ø. T. Haug, O. Galland, P. Souloumiac, A. Souche, F. Guldstrand et al., Inelastic damage as a mechanical precursor for the emplacement of saucer-shaped intrusions, Geology, vol.45, pp.1099-1102, 2017.

D. Healy, R. E. Rizzo, M. Du, N. J. Farrell, M. J. Hole et al., Field evidence for the lateral emplacement of igneous dykes: Implications for 3D mechanical models and the plumbing beneath fissure eruptions, vol.1, pp.85-105, 2018.

M. Heeremans, B. T. Larsen, and H. Stel, Paleostress reconstruction from kinematic indicators in the Oslo Graben, southern Norway: New constraints on the mode of rifting, Tectonophysics, vol.266, pp.55-79, 1996.

H. E. Huppert and R. S. Sparks, Chilled margins in igneous rocks, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.92, pp.397-405, 1989.

J. C. Jaeger, N. G. Cook, and R. W. Zimmerman, Fundamentals of rock mechanics, 2007.

R. J. Jolly and D. J. Sanderson, A Mohr circle construction for the opening of a pre-existing fracture, Journal of Structural Geology, vol.19, pp.887-892, 1997.

J. L. Kavanagh, S. Engwell, and S. Martin, A review of analogue and numerical modelling in volcanology, Solid Earth, vol.9, pp.531-571, 2018.

J. L. Kavanagh and R. S. Sparks, Insights of dyke emplacement mechanics from detailed 3D dyke thickness datasets, Journal of the Geological Society of London, vol.168, pp.965-978, 2011.

L. A. Kirstein, G. R. Davies, and M. Heeremans, The petrogenesis of Carboniferous-Permian dyke and sill intrusions across northern Europe, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol.152, issue.6, pp.721-742, 2006.

H. J. Kjøll, O. Galland, L. Labrousse, and T. B. Andersen, Emplacement mechanisms of a dyke swarm across the brittle-ductile transition and the geodynamic implications for magma-rich margins, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.518, pp.223-235, 2019.

B. T. Larsen, Architecture and early evolution of the Oslo Rift, Tectonophysics, vol.240, pp.173-189, 1994.

J. R. Lister, Buoyancy-driven fluid fracture: The effects of material toughness and of low-viscosity precursors, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.210, pp.263-280, 1990.

S. C. Loughlin, S. Sparks, S. K. Brown, S. F. Jenkins, and C. Vye-brown, Global volcanic hazards and risk, 2015.

F. Maccaferri, M. Bonafede, and E. Rivalta, A numerical model of dyke propagation in layered elastic media, Geophysical Journal International, vol.180, pp.1107-1123, 2010.

C. Magee, J. Muirhead, N. Schofield, R. J. Walker, O. Galland et al., Structural signatures of igneous sheet intrusion propagation, Journal of Structural Geology, vol.125, pp.148-154, 2018.

C. Magee, C. T. Stevenson, S. K. Ebmeier, D. Keir, J. O. Hammond et al., Magma plumbing systems: A geophysical perspective, Journal of Petrology, vol.59, issue.6, pp.1217-1251, 2018.

A. I. Martinez-poza and E. Druguet, Structure and tectonic setting of the SE Sardinia mafic dyke swarm. Insights for the stress state during magma emplacement in the upper crust, Journal of Geodynamics, vol.101, pp.170-185, 2016.

L. G. Mastin and D. D. Pollard, Surface deformation and shallow dike intrusion processes at Inyo Craters, Long Valley, California. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.93, pp.221-234, 1988.

L. Mathieu, . Van-wyk-de, B. Vries, E. P. Holohan, and V. R. Troll, Dykes, cups, saucers and sills: Analogue experiments on magma intrusion into brittle rocks, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.271, pp.1-13, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00339171

S. R. Mcnutt and D. C. Roman, Volcanic seismicity, The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, pp.1011-1034, 2010.

S. Mollo, G. Lanzafame, M. Masotta, G. Iezzi, C. Ferlito et al., Cooling history of a dike as revealed by mineral chemistry: A case study from Mt. Etna volcano, Chemical Geology, vol.288, pp.39-52, 2011.

J. D. Muirhead, G. Airoldi, J. V. Rowland, and J. D. White, Interconnected sills and inclined sheet intrusions control shallow magma transport in the Ferrar large igneous province, Antarctica. Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.124, pp.162-180, 2012.

E. R. Neumann, K. H. Olsen, and W. S. Baldridge, The Oslo rift, Developments in Geotectonics, vol.25, issue.06, pp.80017-80017, 2006.

E. Neumann, M. Wilson, M. Heeremans, E. A. Spencer, K. Obst et al., Carboniferous-Permian rifting and magmatism in southern Scandinavia, the North Sea and northern Germany: a review, Special Publication, vol.223, pp.11-40, 2008.

D. Norton and H. P. Taylor, Quantitative simulation of the hydrothermal systems of crystallizing magmas on the basis of transport theory and oxygen isotope data: An analysis of the skaergaard intrusion, Journal of Petrology, vol.20, pp.421-486, 1979.

D. D. Pollard and A. M. Johnson, Mechanics of growth of some laccolithic intrusions in the Henry Mountains, Tectonophysics, vol.18, issue.3-4, pp.90051-90057, 1973.

D. D. Pollard and O. H. Muller, The effect of gradients in regional stress and magma pressure on the form of sheet intrusions in cross section, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.81, pp.975-984, 1976.

D. D. Pollard, O. H. Muller, and D. R. Dockstader, the form and growth of fingered sheet intrusions, GSA Bulletin, vol.86, pp.351-363, 1975.

S. Poppe, O. Galland, N. J. De-winter, S. Goderis, P. Claeys et al., Major and trace bulk sample and micro-XRF geochemistry, carbon and oxygen stable isotope compositions of magmatic and sedimentary rocks from Hovedøya Island, Oslo fjord, 2020.


S. Poppe, E. P. Holohan, O. Galland, N. Buls, G. Van-gompel et al., An inside perspective on magma intrusion: Quantifying 3D displacement and strain in laboratory experiments by dynamic X-Ray computed tomography, Frontiers in Earth Science, vol.7, 2019.

I. B. Ramberg and B. T. Larsen, The Oslo paleorift: A review and guide to excursions, pp.55-73, 1978.

E. Rivalta, B. Taisne, A. P. Bunger, and R. F. Katz, A review of mechanical models of dike propagation: Schools of thought, results and future directions, Tectonophysics, vol.638, pp.1-42, 2015.

A. M. Rubin, Tensile fracture of rock at high confining pressure: Implications for dike propagation, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.98, p.935, 1993.

A. M. Rubin, Propagation of magma-filled cracks, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol.23, pp.287-336, 1995.

E. Rupnik, M. Daakir, and M. Deseilligny, MicMac-A free, open-source solution for photogrammetry. Open Geospatial Data, Softw. Stand, vol.2, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02369310

M. J. Russel and D. K. Smythe, Origin of the Oslo graben in relation to the Hercynian-Alleghenian orogeny and lithospheric rifting in the North Atlantic, Tectonophysics, vol.94, pp.457-472, 1983.

T. Schmiedel, S. Kjoberg, S. Planke, C. Magee, O. Galland et al., Mechanisms of overburden deformation associated with the emplacement of the Tulipan sill, mid-Norwegian margin. Interpretation, vol.5, pp.23-38, 2017.

N. J. Schofield, D. J. Brown, C. Magee, and C. T. Stevenson, Sill morphology and comparison of brittle and non-brittle emplacement mechanisms, Journal of the Geological Society of London, vol.169, pp.127-141, 2012.

Z. Sharp, Principles of stable isotope geochemistry, 2017.

F. Sigmundsson, M. Parks, R. Pedersen, K. Jónsdóttir, B. G. Ófeigsson et al., Magma movements in volcanic plumbing systems and their associated ground deformation and seismic patterns, Volcan. Igneous Plumb. Syst, pp.285-322, 2018.

J. Sippel, A. Saintot, M. Heeremans, and M. Scheck-wenderoth, Paleostress field reconstruction in the Oslo region. Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol.27, pp.682-708, 2010.

R. Smith, P. R. Sammonds, and C. R. Kilburn, Fracturing of volcanic systems: Experimental insights into pre-eruptive conditions, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.280, pp.211-219, 2009.

A. Souche, O. Galland, Ø. T. Haug, and M. Dabrowski, Impact of host rock heterogeneity on failure around pressurized conduits: Implications for finger-shaped magmatic intrusions, Tectonophysics, vol.765, pp.52-63, 2019.

J. B. Spacapan, O. Galland, H. A. Leanza, and S. Planke, Control of strike-slip fault on dyke emplacement and morphology, Journal of the Geological Society of London, vol.173, issue.4, pp.573-576, 2016.

J. B. Spacapan, O. Galland, H. A. Leanza, and S. Planke, Igneous sill and finger emplacement mechanism in shale-dominated formations: A field study at Cuesta del Chihuido, Journal of the Geological Society of London, vol.174, pp.422-433, 2017.

T. L. Stephens, R. J. Walker, D. Healy, A. Bubeck, and R. W. England, Mechanical models to estimate the paleostress state from igneous intrusions, Solid Earth, vol.9, pp.847-858, 2018.

T. L. Stephens, R. J. Walker, D. Healy, A. Bubeck, R. W. England et al., Igneous sills record far-field and near-field stress interactions during volcano construction: Isle of Mull, Scotland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.478, pp.159-174, 2017.

B. Sundvoll, B. T. Larsen, and B. Wandaas, Early magmatic phase in the Oslo Rift and its related stress regime, Tectonophysics, vol.208, pp.37-54, 1992.

B. Taisne and S. Tait, Effect of solidification on a propagating dike, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.116, p.1206, 2011.

H. P. Taylor and R. W. Forester, An oxygen and hydrogen isotope study of the skaergaard intrusion and its country rocks: A description of a 55-m.y. old fossil hydrothermal system *, Journal of Petrology, vol.20, pp.355-419, 1979.

H. P. Taylor, J. Frechen, and E. T. Degens, Oxygen and carbon isotope studies of carbonatites from the Laacher See District, West Germany and the Alnö District, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.31, pp.407-430, 1967.

C. Thorey and C. Michaut, Elastic-plated gravity currents with a temperature-dependent viscosity, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.805, pp.88-117, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02736449

R. Vachon and C. F. Hieronymus, Effect of host-rock rheology on dyke shape, thickness and magma overpressure, Geophysical Journal International, vol.208, pp.1414-1429, 2017.

R. S. White, J. Drew, H. R. Martens, J. Key, H. Soosalu et al., Dynamics of dyke intrusion in the mid-crust of Iceland, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.304, pp.300-312, 2011.

R. S. White, S. A. Redfern, and S. Y. Chien, Episodicity of seismicity accompanying melt intrusion into the crust, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.39, p.8306, 2012.

X. Zheng, B. Cordonnier, J. Mcbeck, E. Boller, B. Jamtveit et al., Mixed-mode strain localization generated by hydration reaction at crustal conditions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.124, pp.4507-4522, 2019.