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Structural and geochemical interactions between magma and sedimentary host rock: the Hovedøya case, Oslo Rift, Norway

Abstract : Two end‐member conceptual models are used to describe deformation of the Earth's crust induced by magma intrusion. “Mode I” fracturing assumes tensile, or opening‐mode, elastic deformation, while “Mode II” fracturing assumes plastic shear‐mode deformation around a viscous indenter. Field observations of both mechanisms exist, but it remains unclear which mechanism dominates in which conditions. We describe intrusion geometries, host rock deformation and geochemical magma‐host rock interactions around 53 exceptionally preserved, tephrite‐basanite Permian dike segments of 0.5‐30 cm thickness. These thin dikes, i.e. ‘dikelets’, intruded Late‐Ordovician carbonate‐rich sedimentary rocks on Hovedøya island, Oslo Rift, Norway. Dikelets emplaced in pre‐existing fractures dominantly created cavities ahead of their narrow, tapering tips, and are associated with bent host rock, broken bridges and stepped segmented geometries. Other tips are blunt with dense brittle fracturing around them. Also, cross‐sectional intrusion segment opening profiles deviate from parabola‐shaped profiles typical for elastic media. The observations demonstrate that dominant opening‐mode host rock deformation can co‐exist with shear‐mode deformation locally. Alignment of most dikelet segments along the dominant host rock fracture directions highlights the control of local structural orientations on magma emplacement. Analysis of bulk major and trace element compositions, in‐situ micro‐XRF sample analysis and carbon and oxygen stable isotope compositions suggest that thermo‐chemical interactions between magma and the carbonate‐rich host rock produced a low‐viscosity mixture of magma, pore water and gas. We propose that such low‐viscosity hybrid fluid may assist in the intrusion of magma in sedimentary rocks by filling the cavity ahead of propagating sheet intrusion tips.
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Sam Poppe, Olivier Galland, Niels Winter, Steven Goderis, Philippe Claeys, et al.. Structural and geochemical interactions between magma and sedimentary host rock: the Hovedøya case, Oslo Rift, Norway. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, AGU and the Geochemical Society, 2020, 21 (3), pp.e2019GC008685. ⟨10.1029/2019GC008685⟩. ⟨insu-02502660⟩

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