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Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim ratio as a new marker in raw wastewaters: A critical review

Abstract : Global Trimethoprim (TMP) and Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) occurrences in raw wastewaters were systematically collected from the literature (n=140 articles) in order to assess the relevance of using the SMX/TMP ratio as a marker of the main origin of wastewaters. These two antibiotics were selected due to their frequent use in association (i.e. co-trimoxazole) in a 5:1 ratio (SMX:TMP) for medication purposes, generating a unique opportunity to globally evaluate the validity of this ratio based on concentration values. Several parameters (e.g. sorption, biodegradation) may affect the theoretical SMX/TMP ratio. However, the collected data highlighted the good agreement between the theoretical ratio and the experimental one, especially in wastewater treatment plant influents and hospital effluents. Only livestock effluents displayed a very high SMX/TMP ratio, indicative of the very significant use of sulfonamide alone in this industry. Conversely, several countries displayed low SMX/TMP ratio values, highlighting local features in the human pharmacopoeia. This review provides new insights in order to develop an easy to handle and sound marker of wastewater origins (i.e. human/livestock), beyond atypical local customs.
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Contributor : Thomas Thiebault <>
Submitted on : Monday, February 3, 2020 - 9:48:22 AM
Last modification on : Monday, December 14, 2020 - 9:55:41 AM
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Thomas Thiebault. Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim ratio as a new marker in raw wastewaters: A critical review. Science of the Total Environment, Elsevier, In press, ⟨10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136916⟩. ⟨insu-02461909⟩



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