Two‐stage Variscan metamorphism in the Canigou massif: evidence for crustal thickening in the Pyrenees

Abstract : The Variscan metamorphism in the Pyrenees is dominantly of the low-pressure-high-temperature (LP-HT) type. The relics of an earlier, Barrovian-type, metamorphism that could be related to orogenic crustal thickening are unclear and insufficiently constrained. A microstructural and petrological study of micaschists underlying an Ordovician augen orthogneiss in the core of the Canigou massif (Eastern Pyrenees, France) reveal the presence of two syntectonic metamorphic stages characterized by the crystallization of staurolite (M1) and andalusite (M2), respectively. Garnet is stable during the two metamorphic stages with a period of resorption between M1 and M2. The metamorphic assemblages M1 and M2 record similar peak temperatures of 580 °C at different pressure conditions of 5.5 kbar and 3 kbar, respectively. Using chemical zoning of garnet and calculated P–T pseudosections, a prograde P–T path is constrained with a peak pressure at ~6.5 kbar and 550 °C. This P–T path, syntectonic with respect to the first foliation S1, corresponds to a cold gradient (of ~9 °C/km), suggestive of crustal thickening. Resorption of garnet between M1 and M2 can be interpreted either in terms of a simple clockwise P–T path or a polymetamorphic two stage evolution. We argue in favour of the latter, where the medium‐pressure (Barrovian) metamorphism is followed by a period of significant erosion and crustal thinning leading to decompression and cooling. Subsequent advection of heat, probably from the mantle, lead to a new increase in temperature, coeval with the development of the main regional fabric S2. LA‐ICP‐MS U‐Th‐Pb dating of monazite yields a well‐defined date at c. 300 Ma. Petrological evidence indicates that monazite crystallization took place close to the M1 peak‐pressure conditions. However, the similarity between this age and that of the extensive magmatic event well documented in the eastern Pyrenees suggests that it probably corresponds to the age of monazite recrystallization during the M2 LP–HT event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Luc de Hoÿm de Marien, Benjamin Le Bayon, Pavel Pitra, Jean van den Driessche, Marc Poujol, et al.. Two‐stage Variscan metamorphism in the Canigou massif: evidence for crustal thickening in the Pyrenees. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Wiley-Blackwell, In press, ⟨10.1111/jmg.12487⟩. ⟨insu-02106928⟩

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