W. Battye, V. P. Aneja, and W. H. Schlesinger, Is nitrogen the next carbon?, Earth's Future, vol.5, pp.894-904, 2017.

R. Beer, M. W. Shephard, S. S. Kulawik, S. A. Clough, A. Eldering et al., First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.35, 2008.

S. N. Behera, M. Sharma, V. P. Aneja, and R. Balasubramanian, Ammonia in the atmosphere: a revieon emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and deposition on terrestrial bodies, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int, vol.20, pp.8092-8131, 2013.

B. Bessagnet, F. Meleux, O. Favez, M. Beauchamp, A. Colette et al., Le rôle de l'agriculture sur les concentrations en particules dans l'atmosphère et l'apport de la modélisation (the role of agriculture on the concentrations of particles in the atmosphere and supply modeling), Pollution atmosphérique, climat, santé, Société, CEIP: Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections, vol.229, pp.23073-23096, 2001.

L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, F. Dentener, D. Hurtmans, and P. Coheur, Global ammonia distribution derived from infrared satellite observations, Nat. Geosci, vol.2, pp.479-483, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00414672

L. Clarisse, M. Shephard, F. Dentener, D. Hurtmans, K. Cady-pereira et al., Satellite monitoring of ammonia: A case study of the San Joaquin Valley, J. Geophys. Res, vol.115, p.13302, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00459974

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-lazaro et al., Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder, Atmos, Chem. Phys, vol.9, pp.6041-6054, 2009.

, ERA5: Fifth generation of ECMWF atmospheric reanalyses of the global climate, Copernicus Climate Change Service Climate Data Store (CDS), available at, Copernicus Climate Change Service, issue.C3S, 2017.

F. Couvidat, B. Bessagnet, M. Garcia-vivanco, E. Real, L. Menut et al., Development of an inorganic and organic aerosol model (CHIMERE 2017? v1.0): seasonal and spatial evaluation over, Europe, Geosci. Model Dev, vol.11, pp.165-194, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-01863249

M. Corso, S. Medina, and C. Tillier, Quelle est la part des pics de pollution dans les effets à court terme de la pollution de l'air sur la santé dans les villes de France?, 2016.

E. Dammers, M. Palm, M. Van-damme, C. Vigouroux, D. Smale et al., An evaluation of IASI-NH3 with ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.16, pp.10351-10368, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01288958

E. Dammers, M. W. Shephard, M. Palm, K. Cady-pereira, S. Capps et al., Validation of the CrIS fast physical NH 3 retrieval with ground-based FTIR, Atmos. Meas. Tech, vol.10, pp.2645-2667, 2017.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli et al., The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, vol.137, pp.553-597, 2011.

J. W. Erisman, M. A. Sutton, J. N. Galloway, Z. Klimont, and W. Winiwarter, How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world, Nat. Geosci, vol.1, pp.636-639, 2008.

A. Fortems-cheiney, G. Dufour, L. Hamaoui-laguel, G. Foret, G. Siour et al., Unaccounted variability in NH 3 agricultural sources detected by IASI contributing to European spring haze episode, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.43, pp.5475-5482, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01305805

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier-van-der-gon et al., Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs, Atmos, Chem. Phys, vol.15, pp.8217-8299, 2015.

J. N. Galloway, J. D. Aber, J. W. Erisman, S. P. Seitzinger, R. W. Howarth et al., Role of atmospheric ammonia in particulate matter formation in Houston during summertime, Atmos. Environ, vol.53, pp.893-900, 2003.

L. Hamaoui-laguel, F. Meleux, M. Beekmann, B. Bessagnet, S. Génermont et al., Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France, Atmos. Environ, vol.92, pp.584-595, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01192473

C. L. Heald, J. L. Collett, T. Lee, K. B. Benedict, F. M. Schwandner et al., Atmospheric ammonia and particulate inorganic nitrogen over the United States, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.12, pp.10295-10312, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00722962

D. L. Hernández, D. M. Vallano, E. S. Zavaleta, Z. Tzankova, J. R. Pasari et al., Nitrogen Pollution Is Linked to US Listed Species Declines, Bioscience, vol.66, pp.213-222, 2016.

E. A. Holland, S. B. Bertman, M. A. Carroll, A. B. Guenther, P. B. Shepson et al., Nitrogen Science Plan Focuses Collaborative Efforts, vol.86, pp.253-260, 2005.

F. Isbell, P. B. Reich, D. Tilman, S. E. Hobbie, S. Polasky et al., Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.110, pp.11911-11916, 2013.

J. W. Kaiser, A. Heil, M. O. Andreae, A. Benedetti, N. Chubarova et al., Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power, Biogeosciences, vol.9, pp.527-554, 2012.

S. K. Kharol, M. W. Shephard, C. A. Mclinden, L. Zhang, C. E. Sioris et al., Dry deposition of reactive nitrogen from satellite observations of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide over North America, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.45, pp.1157-1166, 2018.

R. Kranenburg, C. Hendriks, J. Kuenen, and M. Schaap, Improved Modelling of Ammonia by Using Manure Transport Data, International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application, pp.483-486, 2016.

J. J. Kuenen, A. J. Visschedijk, M. Jozwicka, D. Van-der-gon, and H. A. , TNO-MACC_II emission inventory; a multi-year (2003-2009) consistent high-resolution European emission inventory for air quality modelling, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.14, pp.10963-10976, 2014.

Y. Li, T. M. Thompson, M. Van-damme, X. Chen, K. B. Benedict et al., Temporal and spatial variability of ammonia in urban and agricultural regions of northern Colorado, Chem. Phys, vol.17, pp.6197-6213, 2017.

S. Mailler, L. Menut, D. Khvorostyanov, M. Valari, F. Couvidat et al., CHIMERE-2017: from urban to hemispheric chemistrytransport modeling, Geosci. Model Dev, vol.10, pp.2397-2423, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-01863164

L. Menut, B. Bessagnet, D. Khvorostyanov, M. Beekmann, N. Blond et al., CHIMERE 2013: a model for regional atmospheric composition modelling, vol.6, pp.981-1028, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-00961818

M. D. Moran, A. Dastoor, G. Morneau, E. Taylor, and A. Mcmillan, Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants and Regional and Global Air Quality Modelling, pp.215-220, 2014.

J. Moncet, G. Uymin, A. E. Lipton, and H. E. Snell, Infrared radiance modeling by optimal spectral sampling, J. Atmos. Sci, vol.65, pp.3917-3934, 2008.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer et al., Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations, Atmos, Chem. Phys, vol.13, issue.10, pp.1853-1877, 2013.

A. Nenes, S. N. Pandis, and C. Pilinis, ISORROPIA: A New Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model for Multiphase Multicomponent Inorganic Aerosols, Aquat. Geoch, vol.4, pp.123-152, 1998.

A. Nenes, S. N. Pandis, and C. Pilinis, ISORROPIA: A New Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model for Multiphase Multicomponent Inorganic Aerosols, Aquat. Geoch, vol.4, pp.123-152, 1998.

J. B. Nowak, J. A. Neuman, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, J. S. Holloway et al., Ammonia sources in the California South Coast Air Basin and their impact on ammonium nitrate formation, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.39, 2012.

H. Petetin, J. Sciare, M. Bressi, V. Gros, A. Rosso et al., Assessing the ammonium nitrate formation regime in the Paris megacity and its representation in the CHIMERE model, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.16, pp.10419-10440, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01587430

J. Petit, O. Favez, J. Sciare, V. Crenn, R. Sarda-estève et al., Two years of near real-time chemical composition of submicron aerosols in the region of Paris using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and a multiwavelength Aethalometer, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.15, pp.2985-3005, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-01862513

J. Petit, T. Amodeo, F. Meleux, B. Bessagnet, L. Menut et al., Characterising an intense PM pollution episode in March 2015 in France from multi-site approach and near real time data: Climatology, variabilities, geographical origins and model evaluation, Atmos. Environ, vol.155, pp.68-84, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-01854712

R. W. Pinder, P. J. Adams, S. N. Pandis, and A. B. Gilliland, Temporally resolved ammonia emission inventories: current estimates, evaluation tools, and measurement needs, J. Geophys. Res, vol.111, p.16310, 2006.

I. Pope, C. A. Ezzati, M. Dockery, and D. W. , Fine-particulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States, New England J. Med, vol.360, pp.376-386, 2009.

M. M. Ramanantenasoa, J. Gilliot, C. Mignolet, C. Bedos, E. Mathias et al., A new framework to estimate spatio-temporal ammonia emissions due to nitrogen fertilization in France, Sci. Tot. Environ, vol.645, pp.205-219, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01843726

T. P. Robinson, G. R. Wint, G. Conchedda, T. P. Van-boeckel, V. Ercoli et al., Mapping the global distribution of livestock, Plos One, vol.9, 2014.

J. Rockström, W. Steffen, K. Noone, A. Persson, F. S. Chapin-iii et al., Planetary boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity, vol.14, 2009.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, vol.2, p.11, 2000.

J. A. Salmond and I. G. Mckendry, A Review of Turbulence in the Very Stable Nocturnal Boundary Layer and Its Implications for Air Quality, Prog. Phys. Geog, vol.29, pp.171-188, 2005.

N. Scarlat, F. Fahl, J. Dallemand, F. Monforti, and V. Motola, A spatial analysis of biogas potential from manure in Europe, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev, vol.94, pp.915-930, 2018.

M. Schaap, R. Timmermans, M. Roemer, G. Boersen, P. Builtjes et al., The LOTOS-EUROS model: Description, validation and latest developments, Int. J. Environ. Pollut, vol.32, pp.270-290, 2008.

L. D. Schiferl, C. L. Heald, M. Van-damme, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux et al., Interannual variability of ammonia concentrations over the United States: sources and implications, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.16, pp.12305-12328, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01373957

M. W. Shephard and K. E. Cady-pereira, Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) satellite observations of tropospheric ammonia, Atmos. Meas. Tech, vol.8, pp.1323-1336, 2015.

M. W. Shephard, K. E. Cady-pereira, M. Luo, D. K. Henze, R. W. Pinder et al., TES ammonia retrieval strategy and global observations of the spatial and seasonal variability of ammonia, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.11, pp.10743-10763, 2011.

C. A. Skjøth, C. Geels, H. Berge, S. Gyldenkaerne, H. Fagerli et al., Spatial and temporal variations in ammonia emissions -a freely accessible model code for Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.11, pp.5221-5236, 2011.

K. Skyllakou, B. N. Murphy, A. G. Megaritis, C. Fountoukis, and S. N. Pandis, Contributions of local and regional sources to fine PM in the megacity of Paris, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.14, pp.2343-2352, 2014.

M. A. Sutton, A. Bleeker, C. Howard, M. Bekunda, B. Grizzetti et al., Our Nutrient World: The challenge to produce C. Viatte et al.: Atmospheric ammonia variability more food and energy with less pollution. Global Overview of Nutrient Management, with contributions from Ayyappan, 2013.

R. Stuhlmann, A. Rodriguez, S. Tjemkes, J. Grandell, A. Arriaga et al., Plans for EUMET-SAT's Third Generation Meteosat (MTG) Geostationary Satellite Program, Adv. Space Res, vol.36, pp.975-981, 2005.

R. A. Toro, M. Canales, R. G. Flocchini, R. G. Morales, G. Leiva et al., Aerosol Air Qual. Res, vol.14, pp.33-44, 2014.

M. Van-damme, L. Clarisse, C. L. Heald, D. Hurtmans, Y. Ngadi et al., Global distributions, time series and error characterization of atmospheric ammonia (NH 3 ) from IASI satellite observations, Atmos, Chem. Phys, vol.14, pp.2905-2922, 2014.

M. Van-damme, R. J. Wichink-kruit, M. Schaap, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux et al., Evaluating four years of atmospheric ammonia (NH 3 ) over Europe using IASI satellite observations and LOTOS-EUROS model results, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos, vol.119, pp.9549-9566, 2014.

M. Van-damme, J. W. Erisman, L. Clarisse, E. Dammers, S. Whitburn et al., Worldwide spatiotemporal atmospheric ammonia (NH 3 ) columns variability revealed by satellite, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.42, pp.8660-8668, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01202973

M. Van-damme, L. Clarisse, E. Dammers, X. Liu, J. B. Nowak et al., Version 2 of the IASI NH 3 neural network retrieval algorithm: near-real-time and reanalysed datasets, Atmos. Meas. Tech, vol.8, pp.4905-4914, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01665525

M. Van-damme, L. Clarisse, S. Whitburn, J. Hadji-lazaro, D. Hurtmans et al., Industrial and agricultural ammonia point sources exposed, The Representative Concentration Pathways: An overview, vol.564, pp.5-31, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01948753

H. Volten, J. B. Bergwerff, M. Haaima, D. E. Lolkema, A. J. Berkhout et al., Two instruments based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to measure accurate ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere, Atmos. Meas. Tech, vol.5, pp.413-427, 2012.

S. Wang, J. Nan, C. Shi, Q. Fu, G. Gao et al., Atmospheric ammonia and its impacts on regional air quality over the megacity of Shanghai, China, Sci. Rep, vol.5, p.15842, 2015.

J. X. Warner, R. R. Dickerson, Z. Wei, L. L. Strow, Y. Wang et al., Increased atmospheric ammonia over the world's major agricultural areas detected from space, Geophys. Res. Lett, pp.2875-2884, 2017.

J. X. Warner, Z. Wei, L. L. Strow, R. R. Dickerson, and J. B. Nowak, The global tropospheric ammonia distribution as seen in the 13-year AIRS measurement record, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.16, pp.5467-5479, 2016.

J. G. Watson, J. C. Chow, F. W. Lurmann, and S. P. Musarra, Ammonium Nitrate, Nitric Acid, and Ammonia Equilibrium in Wintertime Phoenix, Arizona, Air Waste, Parameterization of Surface Resistances to Gaseous Dry Deposition in Regional-Scale Numerical Models, vol.44, pp.1293-1304, 1989.

S. Whitburn, M. Van-damme, L. Clarisse, S. Bauduin, C. Heald et al., A flexible and robust neural network IASI-NH3 retrieval algorithm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos, vol.121, pp.6581-6599, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01345167

D. S. Wilks, Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences, 3 Edn, 2011.

X. Ye, Z. Ma, J. Zhang, H. Du, J. Chen et al., Important role of ammonia on haze formation in Shanghai, Environ. Res. Lett, vol.6, p.24019, 2011.

V. Zavyalov, M. Esplin, D. Scott, B. Esplin, G. Bingham et al., Noise performance of the CrIS instrument, J. Geophys. Res, pp.13108-13120, 2013.

Q. J. Zhang, M. Beekmann, F. Drewnick, F. Freutel, J. Schneider et al., Formation of organic aerosol in the Paris region during the MEGAPOLI summer campaign: evaluation of the volatility-basis-set approach within the CHIMERE model, Atmos, Chem. Phys, vol.13, pp.5767-5790, 2013.

M. Zhao, S. Wang, J. Tan, Y. Hua, D. Wu et al., Variation of urban atmospheric ammonia pollution and its relation with PM 2.5 chemical property in winter of Beijing, China, Aerosol Air Qual. Res, vol.16, pp.1378-1389, 2016.

L. Zhu, D. K. Henze, K. E. Cady-pereira, M. W. Shephard, M. Luo et al., Constraining U.S. ammonia emissions using TES remote sensing observations and the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos, vol.118, pp.3355-3368, 2013.