Overview paper: New insights into aerosol and climate in the Arctic

Jonathan Abbatt 1 W. Richard Leaitch 2 Amir A. Aliabadi 3 Allan Bertram 4 Jean-Pierre Blanchet 5 Aude Boivin-Rioux 6 Heiko Bozem 7 Julia Burkart 8 Rachel Y. W. Chang 9 Joannie Charette 6 Jai P. Chaubey 9 Robert J. Christensen 1 Ana Cirisan 5 Douglas B. Collins 10 Betty Croft 9 Joelle Dionne 9 Greg J. Evans 11 Christopher G. Fletcher 12 Marti Gali 13 Roghayeh Ghahremaninezhad 2 Eric Girard 5 Wanmin Gong 2 Michel Gosselin 6 Margaux Gourdal 14 Sarah Hanna 4 Hakase Hayashida 15 Andreas B. Herber 16 Sareh Hesaraki 17 Peter Hoor 7 Lin Huang 2 Rachel Hussherr 14 Victoria Irish 4 Setigui A. Keita 5 John K. Kodros 18 Franziska Köllner 7, 19 Felicia Kolonjari 2 Daniel Kunkel 7 Luis A. Ladino 20 Kathy S. Law 21 Maurice Levasseur 13 Quentin Libois 5 John Liggio 22 Martine Lizotte 13 Katrina M. Macdonald 11 Rashed Mahmood 15, 23 Randall V. Martin 9 Ryan H. Mason 4 Lisa A. Miller 24 Alexander Moravek 1 Eric Mortenson 15 Emma L. Mungall 1 Jennifer Murphy 1 Maryam Namazi 25 Ann-Lise Norman 26 Norman T. O'Neill 17 Jeffrey R. Pierce 18 Lynn M. Russell 27 Johannes Schneider 19 Hannes Schulz 16 Sangeeta Sharma 2 Meng Si 4 Ralf M. Staebler 2 Nadja S. Steiner 24 Jennie Thomas 28, 21 Knut von Salzen 23 Jeremy J. B. Wentzell 2 Megan Willis 29 Gregory R. Wentworth 30 Jun-Wei Xu 9 Jacqueline D. Yakobi-Hancock 31
21 TROPO - LATMOS
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
Abstract : Motivated by the need to predict how the Arc-tic atmosphere will change in a warming world, this article summarizes recent advances made by the research consortium NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environments) that contribute to our fundamental understanding of Arctic aerosol particles as they relate to climate forcing. The overall goal of NETCARE research has been to use an in-terdisciplinary approach encompassing extensive field observations and a range of chemical transport, earth system, and biogeochemical models. Several major findings and advances have emerged from NETCARE since its formation in 2013. (1) Unexpectedly high summertime dimethyl sulfide (DMS) levels were identified in ocean water (up to 75 nM) and the overlying atmosphere (up to 1 ppbv) in the Cana-dian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). Furthermore, melt ponds, which are widely prevalent, were identified as an important DMS source (with DMS concentrations of up to 6 nM and a potential contribution to atmospheric DMS of 20 % in the study area). (2) Evidence of widespread particle nucleation and growth in the marine boundary layer was found in the CAA in the summertime, with these events observed on 41 % of days in a 2016 cruise. As well, at Alert, Nunavut, particles that are newly formed and grown under conditions of minimal anthropogenic influence during the months of July and August are estimated to contribute 20 % to 80 % of the 30-50 nm particle number density. DMS-oxidation-driven nucle-ation is facilitated by the presence of atmospheric ammonia arising from seabird-colony emissions, and potentially also from coastal regions, tundra, and biomass burning. Via accumulation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a significant fraction of the new particles grow to sizes that are active in cloud droplet formation. Although the gaseous precursors to Arctic marine SOA remain poorly defined, the measured levels of common continental SOA precursors (isoprene and monoterpenes) were low, whereas elevated mixing ratios of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were inferred to arise via processes involving the sea surface micro-layer. (3) The variability in the vertical distribution of black carbon (BC) under both springtime Arctic haze and more pristine summertime aerosol conditions was observed. Measured particle size distributions and mixing states were used to constrain, for the first time, calculations of aerosol-climate interactions under Arctic conditions. Aircraft-and ground-based measurements were used to better establish the BC source regions that supply the Arctic via long-range transport mechanisms, with evidence for a dominant springtime contribution from eastern and southern Asia to the middle troposphere, and a major contribution from northern Asia to the surface. (4) Measurements of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the Arctic indicate that a major source of these particles is mineral dust, likely derived from local sources in the summer and long-range transport in the spring. In addition, INPs are abundant in the sea surface microlayer in the Arctic, and possibly play a role in ice nucleation in the atmosphere when mineral dust concentrations are low. (5) Amongst multiple aerosol components, BC was observed to have the smallest effective deposition velocities to high Arctic snow (0.03 cm s −1).
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Jonathan Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Allan Bertram, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, et al.. Overview paper: New insights into aerosol and climate in the Arctic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, European Geosciences Union, 2019, 19 (4), pp.2527-2560. ⟨10.5194/acp-19-2527-2019⟩. ⟨insu-02052254⟩

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