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OZCAR : The French Network of Critical Zone Observatories

J. Gaillardet 1, * Isabelle Braud 2 F. Hankard S. Anquetin 3 Olivier Bour 4 N. Dorfliger Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy 4 S. Galle 3 C. Galy Sébastien Gogo 5, 6 Laurence Gourcy F. Habets Fatima Laggoun-Défarge 5, 6 Laurent Longuevergne 4 Tanguy Le Borgne 4 F. Naaim-Bouvet 7 G. Nord V. Simonneaux 8 D. Six 3 T. Tallec 8 C. Valentin 9 G. Abril 10 P. Allemand 11 A. Arènes B. Arfib 12, 13 L. Arnaud N. Arnaud P. Arnaud 14 S. Audry 15 Vincent Bailly Comte 13, 16 Christelle Batiot-Guilhe 17, 13 Annick Battais 4 H. Bellot 7 Eric Bernard 18 C. Bertrand 19, 13 H. Bessière Stéphane Binet 5, 6, 13 J. Bodin 20 X. Bodin L. Boithias J. Bouchez 1 B. Boudevillain I. Moussa F. Branger 2 J. Braun Pascal Brunet 13, 21 B. Caceres D. Calmels 22 B. Cappelaere 17 Hélène Celle-Jeanton 19 F. Chabaux 23 K. Chalikakis 24, 25, 13 C. Champollion 26 Yoann Copard 27 C. Cotel Philippe Davy 4 P. Deline G. Delrieu J. Demarty 17 C. Dessert 28 M. Dumont C. Emblanch 24, 25, 13 J. Ezzahar 29 M. Estèves V. Favier 3 M. Faucheux 30 N. Filizola 31 P. Flammarion 32 P. Floury Matthieu Fournier 13, 27 Ophélie Fovet 30 André-Jean Francez 33 L. Gandois 34 Chantal Gascuel 30 E. Gayer 1 C. Genthon 3 F. Gérard D. Gilbert I. Gouttevin 2 M. Grippa 15 Gérard Gruau 4 Abderrahim Jardani 13, 27 Laurent Jeanneau 4 Jean-Lambert Join H. Jourde 17, 13, 21 F. Karbou 35 Y. Lagadeuc 36 E. Lajeunesse 28 R. Lastennet 37, 13 W. Lavado 38 E. Lawin T. Lebel 3 C. Le Bouteiller 7 C. Legout 30 Y. Lejeune 39 E. Le Meur 3 N. Le Moigne J. Lions A. Lucas 40 J. Malet C. Marais-Sicre 8 Jean-Christophe Maréchal 16, 13 C. Marlin 22 P. Martin 41 J. Martin 42 Nicolas Massei 13, 27 A. Mauclerc Naomi Mazzilli 24, 25, 13 Jérôme Molenat 43 P. Moreira-Turcq 44 E. Mougin 15 S. Morin 45 J. Ngoupayou G. Panthou 3 C. Peugeot 17 G. Picard 46 C. Pierret G. Porel 47 A. Probst 34, 13 J. Probst 34, 13 A. Rabatel 3 Damien Raclot 48 Ludovic Ravanel Fayçal Rejiba 27, 49 P. René 50 O. Ribolzi 15 J. Riotte 44 A. Rivière 51 H. Robain 52 L. Ruiz 30 J. Sanchez-Perez W. Santini 15 S. Sauvage 34 Philippe Schoeneich J. Seidel 21, 13 M. Sekhar 53 O. Sengtaheuanghoung 54 N. Silvera 55 M. Steinmann 19, 13 A. Soruco 56 G. Tallec 57 E. Thibert 7 D. Lao 49, 13 C. Vincent 3 D. Viville 58 P. Wagnon Rim Zitouna David Labat 15, 13
* Corresponding author
6 Biogéosystèmes Continentaux - UMR7327
ISTO - Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans - UMR7327 : UMR7327
47 HydrASA - Hydrogéologie, Argiles, Sols, Altérations (E2)
IC2MP - Institut de Chimie des Milieux et Matériaux de Poitiers
Abstract : The French critical zone initiative, called OZCAR (Observatoires de la Zone Critique-Application et Recherche or Critical Zone Observatories-Application and Research) is a National Research Infrastructure (RI). OZCAR-RI is a network of instrumented sites, bringing together 21 pre-existing research observatories monitoring different compartments of the zone situated between "the rock and the sky," the Earth's skin or critical zone (CZ), over the long term. These observatories are regionally based and have specific initial scientific questions, monitoring strategies, databases, and modeling activities. The diversity of OZCAR-RI observatories and sites is well representative of the heterogeneity of the CZ and of the scientific communities studying it. Despite this diversity, all OZCAR-RI sites share a main overarching mandate, which is to monitor, understand, and predict ("earthcast") the fluxes of water and matter of the Earth's near surface and how they will change in response to the "new climatic regime." The vision for OZCAR strategic development aims at designing an open infrastructure, building a national CZ community able to share a systemic representation of the CZ , and educating a new generation of scientists more apt to tackle the wicked problem of the Anthropocene. OZCAR articulates around: (i) a set of common scientific questions and cross-cutting scientific activities using the wealth of OZCAR-RI observatories, (ii) an ambitious instrumental development program, and (iii) a better interaction between data and models to integrate the different time and spatial scales. Internationally, OZCAR-RI aims at strengthening the CZ community by providing a model of organization for pre-existing observatories and by offering CZ instrumented sites. OZCAR is one of two French mirrors of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructure (eLTER-ESFRI) project.
Mots-clés : OZCAR
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J. Gaillardet, Isabelle Braud, F. Hankard, S. Anquetin, Olivier Bour, et al.. OZCAR : The French Network of Critical Zone Observatories. Vadose Zone Journal, Soil science society of America - Geological society of America., 2018, 17 (1), pp.1-24. ⟨10.2136/vzj2018.04.0067⟩. ⟨insu-01944414⟩

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