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OZCAR : The French Network of Critical Zone Observatories

J. Gaillardet 1, * Isabelle Braud 2 F. Hankard S. Anquetin 3 Olivier Bour 4 Nathalie Dorfliger 5 Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy 4 S. Galle 3 C. Galy Sébastien Gogo 6, 7 Laurence Gourcy 5 F. Habets Fatima Laggoun-Défarge 6, 7 Laurent Longuevergne 4 Tanguy Le Borgne 4 F. Naaim-Bouvet 8 G. Nord Vincent Simonneaux 9 D. Six 3 Tiphaine Tallec 9 C. Valentin 10 G. Abril 11 P. Allemand 12 A. Arènes B. Arfib 13, 14 L. Arnaud N. Arnaud P. Arnaud 15 S. Audry 16 Vincent Bailly Comte 14, 5 Christelle Batiot-Guilhe 17, 14 Annick Battais 4 H. Bellot 8 Eric Bernard 18 C. Bertrand 19, 14 Hélène Bessiere 5 Stéphane Binet 6, 7, 14 J. Bodin 20 X. Bodin L. Boithias J. Bouchez 1 B. Boudevillain I. Moussa F. Branger 2 J. Braun Pascal Brunet 14, 21 B. Caceres D. Calmels 22 B. Cappelaere 17 Hélène Celle-Jeanton 19 F. Chabaux 23 K. Chalikakis 24, 25, 14 C. Champollion 26 Yoann Copard 27 C. Cotel Philippe Davy 4 P. Deline G. Delrieu J. Demarty 17 C. Dessert 28 M. Dumont C. Emblanch 24, 25, 14 J. Ezzahar 29 M. Estèves V. Favier 3 M. Faucheux 30 N. Filizola 31 P. Flammarion 32 P. Floury Matthieu Fournier 14, 27 Ophélie Fovet 30 André-Jean Francez 33 L. Gandois 34 Chantal Gascuel 30 E. Gayer 1 C. Genthon 3 F. Gérard D. Gilbert I. Gouttevin 2 Manuela Grippa 16 Gérard Gruau 4 Abderrahim Jardani 14, 27 Laurent Jeanneau 4 Jean-Lambert Join H. Jourde 17, 14, 21 F. Karbou 35 Y. Lagadeuc 36 E. Lajeunesse 28 R. Lastennet 37, 14 W. Lavado 38 E. Lawin T. Lebel 3 Caroline Le Bouteiller 8 C. Legout 30 Y. Lejeune 39 E. Le Meur 3 Nicolas Lemoigne Julie Lions 5 A. Lucas 40 J. Malet Claire Marais-Sicre 9 Jean-Christophe Maréchal 5, 14 C. Marlin 22 P. Martin 41 J. Martins 42 Nicolas Massei 14, 27 A. Mauclerc Naomi Mazzilli 24, 25, 14 Jérôme Molenat 43 P. Moreira-Turcq 44 Anne Probst 34, 14 Éric Mougin 16 S. Morin 35 J. Ngoupayou G. Panthou 3 C. Peugeot 17 G. Picard 45 C. Pierret G. Porel 46 J. Probst 34, 14 A. Rabatel 3 Damien Raclot 47 Ludovic Ravanel Fayçal Rejiba 27, 48 P. René 49 O. Ribolzi 16 J. Riotte 44 A. Rivière 50 H. Robain 51 L. Ruiz 30 J. Sanchez-Perez W. Santini 16 S. Sauvage 34 Philippe Schoeneich J. Seidel 21, 14 M. Sekhar 52 O. Sengtaheuanghoung 53 N. N. Silvera 54 M. Steinmann 19, 14 A. Soruco 55 G. Tallec 56 Emmanuel Thibert 8 D. Lao 48, 14 C. Vincent 3 D. Viville 57 P. Wagnon Rim Zitouna David Labat 16, 14 
* Corresponding author
7 Biogéosystèmes Continentaux - UMR7327
ISTO - Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans - UMR7327 : UMR7327
46 HydrASA - Hydrogéologie, Argiles, Sols, Altérations (E2)
IC2MP - Institut de Chimie des Milieux et Matériaux de Poitiers
Abstract : The French critical zone initiative, called OZCAR (Observatoires de la Zone Critique-Application et Recherche or Critical Zone Observatories-Application and Research) is a National Research Infrastructure (RI). OZCAR-RI is a network of instrumented sites, bringing together 21 pre-existing research observatories monitoring different compartments of the zone situated between "the rock and the sky," the Earth's skin or critical zone (CZ), over the long term. These observatories are regionally based and have specific initial scientific questions, monitoring strategies, databases, and modeling activities. The diversity of OZCAR-RI observatories and sites is well representative of the heterogeneity of the CZ and of the scientific communities studying it. Despite this diversity, all OZCAR-RI sites share a main overarching mandate, which is to monitor, understand, and predict ("earthcast") the fluxes of water and matter of the Earth's near surface and how they will change in response to the "new climatic regime." The vision for OZCAR strategic development aims at designing an open infrastructure, building a national CZ community able to share a systemic representation of the CZ , and educating a new generation of scientists more apt to tackle the wicked problem of the Anthropocene. OZCAR articulates around: (i) a set of common scientific questions and cross-cutting scientific activities using the wealth of OZCAR-RI observatories, (ii) an ambitious instrumental development program, and (iii) a better interaction between data and models to integrate the different time and spatial scales. Internationally, OZCAR-RI aims at strengthening the CZ community by providing a model of organization for pre-existing observatories and by offering CZ instrumented sites. OZCAR is one of two French mirrors of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructure (eLTER-ESFRI) project.
Mots-clés : OZCAR
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J. Gaillardet, Isabelle Braud, F. Hankard, S. Anquetin, Olivier Bour, et al.. OZCAR : The French Network of Critical Zone Observatories. Vadose Zone Journal, Soil science society of America - Geological society of America., 2018, 17 (1), pp.1-24. ⟨10.2136/vzj2018.04.0067⟩. ⟨insu-01944414⟩

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