, Fairbanks declaration. Retrieved from Fairbanks, Arctic Council (AC, 2017.

R. Ahmadov, S. Mckeen, M. Trainer, R. Banta, A. Brewer et al., Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil-and natural gas-producing region of the western US, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.15, issue.1, pp.411-429, 2015.

S. K. Akagi, R. J. Yokelson, C. Wiedinmyer, M. J. Alvarado, J. S. Reid et al., Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.11, issue.9, pp.4039-4072, 2011.

S. Aksoyoglu, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. Prévôt, Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in, Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.4, pp.1895-1906, 2016.

, Alaska native mortality update, Alaska Native Tumor Registry Consortium, pp.2009-2013, 2016.

B. Alexander, R. J. Park, D. J. Jacob, and S. Gong, Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.114, 2009.

A. A. Aliabadi, R. M. Staebler, and S. Sharma, Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.15, issue.5, pp.2651-2673, 2015.

E. H. Allison and H. R. Bassett, Climate change in the oceans: Human impacts and responses, Science, vol.350, issue.6262, pp.778-782, 2015.

M. Amann, I. Bertok, J. Borken-kleefeld, J. Cofala, C. Heyes et al., Cost-effective control of air quality and greenhouse gases in Europe: Modeling and policy applications, Environmental Modelling & Software, vol.26, pp.1489-1501, 2011.

M. Amann, Z. Klimont, and F. Wagner, Regional and global emissions of air pollutants: Recent trends and future scenarios, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol.38, pp.31-55, 2013.

, Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA): Climate change and the cryosphere, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), 2006.

, AMAP assessment 2015: Methane as an Arctic climate forcer, Oslo, Norway. AMAP, 2015.

, AMAP Assessment 2015: Black carbon and ozone as Arctic climate forcers. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) (vii + 116 pp), AMAP, 2015.

, Adaptation Actions for a Changing Arctic (AACA)-Barents area overview report, AMAP, 2017.

S. C. Anenberg, K. H. Daven, L. Forrest, I. Ans, K. Patrick et al., Air pollution-related health and climate benefits of clean cookstove programs in Mozambique, Environmental Research Letters, vol.12, issue.2, p.25006, 2017.

S. C. Anenberg, J. Miller, R. Minjares, L. Du, D. K. Henze et al., Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NO x emissions in 11 major vehicle markets, Nature, vol.545, issue.7655, pp.467-471, 2017.

S. C. Anenberg, J. Schwartz, D. Shindell, M. Amann, G. Faluvegi et al., Global air quality and health co-benefits of mitigating near-term climate change through methane and black carbon emission controls, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.120, issue.6, pp.831-839, 2012.

K. W. Anthony, R. Daanen, P. Anthony, T. Schneider-von-deimling, C. Ping et al., Methane emissions proportional to permafrost carbon thawed in Arctic lakes since the 1950s, Nature Geoscience, vol.9, 2016.

R. L. Apodaca, D. M. Huff, and W. R. Simpson, The role of ice in N 2 O 5 heterogeneous hydrolysis at high latitudes, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.8, issue.24, pp.7451-7463, 2008.

J. S. Apte, J. D. Marshall, A. J. Cohen, and M. Brauer, Addressing global mortality from ambient PM 2.5. Environmental Science & Technology, vol.49, pp.8057-8066, 2015.

S. R. Arnold, K. S. Law, C. A. Brock, J. L. Thomas, S. M. Starkweather et al., Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade, Elementa Science for the Anthropocene, 2016.

E. Asmi, V. Kondratyev, D. Brus, T. Laurila, H. Lihavainen et al., Aerosol size distribution seasonal characteristics measured in Tiksi, Russian Arctic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.3, pp.1271-1287, 2016.

J. D. Ayers and W. R. Simpson, Measurements of N 2 O 5 near Fairbanks, Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.111, 2006.

J. Bäck, J. Aalto, M. Henriksson, H. Hakola, Q. He et al., Chemodiversity of a Scots pine stand and implications for terpene air concentrations, Biogeosciences, vol.9, issue.2, pp.689-702, 2012.

H. Balzter, F. Gerard, C. George, G. Weedon, W. Grey et al., Coupling of vegetation growing season anomalies and fire activity with hemispheric and regional-scale climate patterns in central and East Siberia, Journal of Climate, vol.20, issue.15, pp.3713-3729, 2007.

W. Bank and &. Icci, On thin ice: How cutting pollution can slow warming and save lives, 2013.

A. Bartsch, H. Balzter, and C. George, The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites, Environmental Research Letters, vol.4, issue.4, 2009.

C. S. Benson, Ice-fog, Engineering and Science, vol.32, issue.8, pp.15-19, 1969.

J. Berglund and L. I. Elding, the Arctic: Climate, Environment and Societies (PACES) initiative, under the auspices of Future Earth/International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), Atmospheric Environment, vol.29, issue.12, pp.1379-1391, 1995.

J. S. , S. R. , and K. S. ,

J. L. Beverly, M. D. Flannigan, B. J. Stocks, and P. Bothwell, The association between Northern Hemisphere climate patterns and interannual variability in Canadian wildfire activity, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol.41, issue.11, pp.2193-2201, 2011.

D. R. Blake, D. F. Hurst, T. W. Smith, W. J. Whipple, T. Chen et al., Summertime measurements of selected nonmethane hydrocarbons in the Arctic and subarctic during the 1988 Arctic boundary layer expedition (ABLE 3A), Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.97, issue.D15, pp.559-575, 1992.

E. Bossioli, M. Tombrou, A. Karali, A. Dandou, D. Paronis et al., Ozone production from the interaction of wildfire and biogenic emissions: A case study in Russia during spring, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.12, issue.17, pp.7931-7953, 2006.

S. A. Bowling, Climatology of high-latitude air pollution as illustrated by Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, vol.25, issue.1, pp.22-34, 1986.

S. S. Brown and J. Stutz, Nighttime radical observations and chemistry, Chemical Society Reviews, vol.41, issue.19, pp.6405-6447, 2012.

J. Browse, K. S. Carslaw, A. Schmidt, and J. J. Corbett, Impact of future Arctic shipping on high-latitude black carbon deposition, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.40, pp.4459-4463, 2013.

L. R. Bulkow, R. J. Singleton, C. Debyle, K. Miernyk, G. Redding et al., Risk factors for hospitalization with lower respiratory tract infections in children in rural Alaska, Pediatrics, vol.129, issue.5, pp.1220-1227, 2012.

R. T. Burnett, C. A. Pope, M. Ezzati, C. Olives, S. S. Lim et al., An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.122, issue.4, pp.397-403, 2014.

Z. Chafe, M. Brauer, M. Heroux, Z. Klimont, T. Lanki et al., Residential heating with wood and coal: Health impacts and policy options in Europe and North America, 2015.

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. Gyawali, R. L. Yatavelli, A. Pandey, A. C. Watts et al., Brown carbon aerosols from burning of boreal peatlands: Microphysical properties, emission factors, and implications for direct radiative forcing, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.5, pp.3033-3040, 2016.

Y. Cheng, G. Zheng, C. Wei, Q. Mu, B. Zheng et al., Reactive nitrogen chemistry in aerosol water as a source of sulfate during haze events in China, Science Advances, vol.2, issue.12, 2016.

J. W. Chi, W. J. Li, D. Z. Zhang, J. C. Zhang, Y. T. Lin et al., Sea salt aerosols as a reactive surface for inorganic and organic acidic gases in the Arctic troposphere, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.15, issue.19, pp.341-352, 2015.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, L. W. Chen, W. P. Arnott, H. Moosmüller et al., Equivalence of elemental carbon by thermal/optical reflectance and transmittance with different temperature protocols, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.38, issue.16, pp.4414-4422, 2004.

S. Chowdhury and S. Dey, Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM 2.5 exposure in India: Estimate adjusted for baseline mortality, Environment International, vol.91, pp.283-290, 2016.

C. L. Clifton, N. Altstein, and R. E. Huie, Rate constant for the reaction of nitrogen dioxide with sulfur (IV) over the pH range, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.5, issue.5, pp.586-589, 1988.

A. J. Cohen, M. Brauer, R. Burnett, H. R. Anderson, J. Frostad et al., Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: An analysis of data from the global burden of diseases study, The Lancet, vol.389, pp.1907-1918, 2015.

R. Commane, J. Lindaas, J. Benmergui, K. A. Luus, R. Y. Chang et al., Carbon dioxide sources from Alaska driven by increasing early winter respiration from Arctic tundra, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2017.

M. H. Conklin and M. R. Hoffmann, Metal ion-sulfur (IV) chemistry. 1. Structure and thermodynamics of transient copper (II)-sulfur (IV) complexes, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.22, issue.8, pp.883-891, 1988.

M. H. Conklin and M. R. Hoffmann, Metal ion-sulfur (IV) chemistry. 2. Kinetic studies of the redox chemistry of copper (II)-sulfur (IV) complexes, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.22, issue.8, pp.891-898, 1988.

J. J. Corbett, D. A. Lack, J. J. Winebrake, S. Harder, J. A. Silberman et al., Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.10, issue.19, pp.9689-9704, 2010.

N. Council, The ongoing challenge of managing carbon monoxide pollution in Fairbanks, 2002.

J. M. Creamean, M. Maahn, G. De-boer, A. Mccomiskey, A. J. Sedlacek et al., The influence of local oil exploration and regional wildfires on summer 2015 aerosol over the North Slope of Alaska, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.18, pp.555-570, 2018.

M. Crippa, G. Janssens-maenhout, F. Dentener, D. Guizzardi, K. Sindelarova et al., Forty years of improvements in European air quality: Regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.6, pp.3825-3841, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01180292

S. B. Dalsøren, Ø. Endresen, I. S. Isaksen, G. Gravir, and E. Sørgård, Environmental impacts of the expected increase in sea transportation, with a particular focus on oil and gas scenarios for Norway and Northwest Russia, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.112, 2007.

S. Decesari, M. H. Sowlat, S. Hasheminassab, S. Sandrini, S. Gilardoni et al., Enhanced toxicity of aerosol in fog conditions in the Po Valley, Italy. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.17, issue.12, pp.7721-7731, 2017.

L. Deguillaume, M. Leriche, K. Desboeufs, G. Mailhot, C. George et al., Transition metals in atmospheric liquid phases: Sources, reactivity, and sensitive parameters, Chemical Reviews, vol.105, issue.9, pp.3388-3431, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01819392

V. A. Dutkiewicz, A. M. Dejulio, T. Ahmed, J. Laing, P. K. Hopke et al., Forty-seven years of weekly atmospheric black carbon measurements in the Finnish Arctic: Decrease in black carbon with declining emissions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.119, pp.7667-7683, 2014.

S. Eckhardt, O. Hermansen, H. Grythe, M. Fiebig, K. Stebel et al., The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard – a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic? Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.13, pp.8401-8409, 2013.

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta et al., High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin, Nature, vol.514, issue.7522, pp.351-354, 2014.

, Summary of progress and recommendations, Arctic Council, 2017.

V. M. Eguíluz, J. Fernández-gracia, X. Irigoien, and C. M. Duarte, A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010-2014, Scientific Reports, vol.6, 2016.

M. Elser, R. J. Huang, R. Wolf, J. G. Slowik, Q. Wang et al., New insights into PM 2.5 chemical composition and sources in two major cities in China during extreme haze events using aerosol mass spectrometry, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.5, pp.3207-3225, 2016.

N. Evangeliou, Y. Balkanski, W. M. Hao, A. Petkov, R. P. Silverstein et al., Wildfires in northern Eurasia affect the budget of black carbon in the Arctic-A 12-year retrospective synopsis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.12, pp.7587-7604, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01587550

M. Evans, N. Kholod, T. Kuklinski, A. Denysenko, S. J. Smith et al., Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review, Atmospheric Environment, vol.163, pp.9-21, 2017.

M. Evans, N. Kholod, V. Malyshev, S. Tretyakova, E. Gusev et al., Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources: Case study of Murmansk, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.15, issue.14, pp.8349-8359, 2015.

P. Faubert, P. Tiiva, Å. Rinnan, A. Michelsen, J. K. Holopainen et al., Doubled volatile organic compound emissions from subarctic tundra under simulated climate warming, New Phytologist, vol.187, issue.1, pp.199-208, 2010.

L. Fierce, N. Riemer, and T. C. Bond, Toward reduced representation of mixing state for simulating aerosol effects on climate, vol.98, pp.971-980, 2017.

M. G. Flanner, C. S. Zender, J. T. Randerson, and P. J. Rasch, Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.112, 2007.

M. D. Flannigan, M. A. Krawchuk, W. J. De-groot, B. M. Wotton, and L. M. Gowman, Implications of changing climate for global wildland fire, International Journal of Wildland Fire, vol.18, issue.5, p.000268809000001, 2009.

M. H. Forouzanfar, A. Afshin, L. T. Alexander, H. R. Anderson, Z. A. Bhutta et al., Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study, The Lancet, vol.388, issue.16, pp.31679-31687, 2015.

U. Franck, S. Odeh, A. Wiedensohler, B. Wehner, and O. Herbarth, The effect of particle size on cardiovascular disorders-The smaller the worse, Science of the Total Environment, vol.409, issue.20, pp.4217-4221, 2011.

D. L. Gautier, K. J. Bird, R. R. Charpentier, A. Grantz, D. W. Houseknecht et al., Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Arctic, Science, vol.324, issue.5931, pp.1175-1179, 2009.

H. Genet, Y. He, Z. Lyu, A. D. Mcguire, Q. Zhuang et al., The role of driving factors in historical and projected carbon dynamics of upland ecosystems in Alaska, Ecological Applications, vol.28, issue.1, pp.5-27, 2018.

H. Geng, J. Ryu, H. Jung, H. Chung, K. Ahn et al., Single-particle characterization of summertime Arctic aerosols collected at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Environmental Science & Technology, vol.44, issue.7, pp.2348-2353, 2010.

L. Giglio, J. T. Randerson, and G. R. Van-der-werf, Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4), Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.118, pp.317-328, 2013.

W. Gong, S. R. Beagley, S. Cousineau, M. Sassi, R. Munoz-alpizar et al., Assessing the impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Canadian Arctic and northern regions: Current and future modelled scenarios. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, pp.1-54, 2018.

C. Granier, U. Niemeier, J. H. Jungclaus, L. Emmons, P. Hess et al., Ozone pollution from future ship traffic in the Arctic northern passages, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.33, p.13807, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00084789

C. D. Groot-zwaaftink, H. Grythe, H. Skov, and A. Stohl, Substantial contribution of northern high-latitude sources to mineral dust in the Arctic, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.121, pp.678-613, 2016.

A. B. Guenther, X. Jiang, C. L. Heald, T. Sakulyanontvittaya, T. Duhl et al., The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): An extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions, Geoscientific Model Development, vol.5, issue.6, pp.1471-1492, 2012.

M. Guggisberg, P. A. Hessel, D. Michaelchuk, and M. Atiemo, Particulate matter and gaseous contaminants in indoor environments in an isolated northern community, International Journal of Circumpolar Health, vol.62, issue.2, pp.120-129, 2003.

I. Gultepe, A. J. Heymsfield, M. Gallagher, L. Ickes, and D. Baumgardner, Ice fog: The current state of knowledge and future challenges, Meteorological Monographs, vol.58, 2017.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka et al., Ice fog in Arctic during FRAM-Ice fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.95, issue.2, pp.211-226, 2014.

M. J. Gunsch, R. M. Kirpes, K. R. Kolesar, T. E. Barrett, S. China et al., Contributions of transported Prudhoe Bay oilfield emissions to the aerosol population in Utqia?vik, Alaska. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, pp.1-29, 2017.

H. Guo, R. J. Weber, and A. Nenes, High levels of ammonia do not raise fine particle pH sufficiently to yield nitrogen oxide-dominated sulfate production, Scientific Reports, vol.7, issue.1, p.109, 2017.

A. M. Hansen, K. Kristensen, Q. T. Nguyen, A. Zare, F. Cozzi et al., Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: Speciation, annual variation and concentration levels, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.14, issue.15, pp.7807-7823, 2014.

E. Harris, B. Sinha, D. Van-pinxteren, A. Tilgner, K. W. Fomba et al., Enhanced role of transition metal ion catalysis during in-cloud oxidation of SO 2, Science, issue.6133, pp.727-730, 2013.

I. Hassellöv, D. R. Turner, A. Lauer, and J. J. Corbett, Shipping contributes to ocean acidification, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.40, pp.2731-2736, 2013.

J. Heintzenberg and C. Leck, The summer aerosol in the Central Arctic 1991-2008: Did it change or not?, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.12, issue.9, pp.3969-3983, 2012.

A. I. Hienola, J. P. Pietikäinen, D. Jacob, R. Pozdun, T. Petäjä et al., Black carbon concentration and deposition estimations in Finland by the regional aerosol-climate model REMO-HAM, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.13, issue.8, pp.4033-4055, 2013.

T. Holst, A. Arneth, S. Hayward, A. Ekberg, M. Mastepanov et al., BVOC ecosystem flux measurements at a high latitude wetland site, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.10, issue.4, pp.1617-1634, 2010.

, Earth's Future

C. R. Hoyle, M. Boy, N. M. Donahue, J. L. Fry, M. Glasius et al., A review of the anthropogenic influence on biogenic secondary organic aerosol, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.11, issue.1, pp.321-343, 2011.

K. Huang and J. S. Fu, A global gas flaring black carbon emission rate dataset from 1994 to 2012, 2016.

K. Huang, J. S. Fu, V. Y. Prikhodko, J. M. Storey, A. Romanov et al., Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.120, pp.306-317, 2015.

W. Huang, H. Saathoff, A. Pajunoja, X. Shen, K. Naumann et al., ?-Pinene secondary organica aerosol at low temperature: Chemical composition and implication for particle visocity, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.18, pp.2883-2898, 2018.

D. M. Huff, P. L. Joyce, G. J. Fochesatto, and W. R. Simpson, Deposition of dinitrogen pentoxide, N 2 O 5 , to the snowpack at high latitudes, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.11, issue.10, pp.30-35, 2011.

A. Huss, P. K. Lim, and C. A. Eckert, Oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide. 1. Homogeneous manganese (II) and iron (II) catalysis at low pH, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol.86, issue.21, pp.4224-4228, 1982.

, Working Group I Contribution to the IPCC 5th Assessment Report-Changes to the Underlying Scientific/Technical Assessment, 2013.

D. J. Jacob, Heterogeneous chemistry and tropospheric ozone, Atmospheric Environment, vol.34, p.000086195600012, 2000.

D. A. Jaffe, R. E. Honrath, D. Furness, T. J. Conway, E. Dlugokencky et al., A determination of the CH 4 , NO x and CO 2 emissions from the Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil development, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol.20, pp.213-227, 1995.

D. A. Jaffe, R. E. Honrath, J. A. Herring, S. Li, and J. D. Kahl, Measurements of nitrogen oxides at Barrow Alaska during spring: Evidence for regional and northern hemispheric sources of pollution, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.96, issue.D4, pp.7395-7405, 1991.

J. P. Jalkanen, L. Johansson, J. Kukkonen, A. Brink, J. Kalli et al., Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.12, issue.5, pp.2641-2659, 2012.

G. Janssens-maenhout, M. Crippa, D. Guizzardi, F. Dentener, M. Muntean et al., HTAP_v2.2: A mosaic of regional and global emission grid maps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.15, issue.19, pp.411-422, 2015.

J. L. Jimenez, M. R. Canagaratna, N. M. Donahue, A. S. Prevot, Q. Zhang et al., Evolution of organic aerosols in the atmosphere, Science, vol.326, issue.5959, p.000272623600055, 2009.

L. Johansson, J. Jalkanen, and J. Kukkonen, Global assessment of shipping emissions in 2015 on a high spatial and temporal resolution, Atmospheric Environment, vol.167, pp.403-415, 2017.

J. E. Jonson, J. P. Jalkanen, L. Johansson, M. Gauss, and H. A. Denier-van-der-gon, Model calculations of the effects of present and future emissions of air pollutants from shipping in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.15, issue.2, pp.783-798, 2015.

P. L. Joyce, R. Von-glasow, and W. R. Simpson, The fate of NO x emissions due to nocturnal oxidation at high latitudes: 1-D simulations and sensitivity experiments, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.14, issue.14, pp.7601-7616, 2014.

S. Jurá?, E. Pallozzi, G. Guidolotti, S. Fares, L. ?igut et al., Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds above temperate Norway spruce forest of the Czech Republic, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol.232, pp.500-513, 2017.

E. S. Kasischke and E. E. Hoy, Controls on carbon consumption during Alaskan wildland fires, Global Change Biology, vol.18, issue.2, pp.685-699, 2012.

E. S. Kasischke, E. J. Hyer, P. C. Novelli, L. P. Bruhwiler, N. H. French et al., Influences of boreal fire emissions on Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon and carbon monoxide, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.19, 2005.

R. Kelly, M. L. Chipman, P. E. Higuera, I. Stefanova, L. B. Brubaker et al., Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.110, issue.32, pp.55-68, 2013.

D. W. Kicklighter, Y. Cai, Q. Zhuang, E. I. Parfenova, S. Paltsev et al., Potential influence of climate-induced vegetation shifts on future land use and associated land carbon fluxes in northern Eurasia, Environmental Research Letters, vol.9, issue.3, 2014.

C. K. Kim, M. Stuefer, C. G. Schmitt, A. Heymsfield, and G. Thompson, Numerical modeling of ice fog in interior Alaska using the weather research and forecasting model, Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol.171, issue.8, pp.1963-1982, 2014.

R. M. Kirpes, A. L. Bondy, D. Bonanno, R. C. Moffet, B. Wang et al., Secondary sulfate is internally mixed with sea spray aerosol and organic aerosol in the winter Arctic, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.18, issue.6, pp.3937-3949, 2018.

Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, C. Heyes, P. Purohit, J. Cofala et al., Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.17, issue.14, pp.8681-8723, 2017.

W. Knorr, F. Dentener, S. Hantson, L. Jiang, Z. Klimont et al., Air quality impacts of European wildfire emissions in a changing climate, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.9, pp.5685-5703, 2016.

W. Knorr, L. Jiang, and A. Arneth, Climate, CO 2 and human population impacts on global wildfire emissions, Biogeosciences, vol.13, issue.1, pp.267-282, 2016.

K. R. Kolesar, J. Cellini, P. K. Peterson, A. Jefferson, T. Tuch et al., Effect of Prudhoe Bay emissions on atmospheric aerosol growth events observed in Utqia?vik, Atmospheric Environment, vol.152, pp.146-155, 2017.

R. A. Kotchenruther, Source apportionment of PM 2.5 at multiple northwest U.S. sites: Assessing regional winter wood smoke impacts from residential wood combustion, Atmospheric Environment, pp.210-219, 2016.

M. Kramshoj, I. Vedel-petersen, M. Schollert, A. Rinnan, J. Nymand et al., Large increases in Arctic biogenic volatile emissions are a direct effect of warming, Nature Geoscience, vol.9, issue.5, pp.349-352, 2016.

K. Kristensen, L. N. Jensen, M. Glasius, and M. Bilde, The effect of sub-zero temperature on the formation and composition of secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, vol.19, p.1220, 2017.

M. Kumai, Arctic fog droplet size distribution and its effect on light attenuation, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.30, issue.4, pp.635-643, 1973.

H. K. Lappalainen, V. M. Kerminen, T. Petäjä, T. Kurten, A. Baklanov et al., Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): Towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land-atmosphere-ocean-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.22, pp.421-435, 2016.

J. N. Larsen and G. Fondahl, Arctic human development report: Regional processes and global linkages, 2015.

K. S. Law, A. Roiger, J. L. Thomas, L. Marelle, J. Raut et al., Local Arctic air pollution: Sources and impacts, Ambio, vol.46, issue.3, pp.453-463, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01625572

K. S. Law and A. Stohl, Arctic air pollution: Origins and impacts, Science, issue.5818, p.315, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00145006

K. S. Law, A. Stohl, P. K. Quinn, C. A. Brock, J. F. Burkhart et al., Arctic air pollution: New insights from POLARCAT-IPY, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.95, issue.12, pp.1873-1895, 2014.

K. Leelasakultum, N. Mölders, H. N. Tran, and G. A. Grell, Potential impacts of the introduction of low-sulfur fuel on PM 2.5 concentrations at breathing level in a Subarctic City, Advances in Meteorology, vol.16, 2012.

C. Li, N. C. Hsu, A. M. Sayer, N. A. Krotkov, J. S. Fu et al., Satellite observation of pollutant emissions from gas flaring activities near the Arctic, Atmospheric Environment, vol.133, pp.1-11, 2016.

F. Lindwall, P. Faubert, and R. Rinnan, Diel variation of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions-A field study in the sub, low and high arctic on the effect of temperature and light, PLoS One, issue.4, p.10, 2015.

F. Lindwall, M. Schollert, A. Michelsen, D. Blok, and R. Rinnan, Fourfold higher tundra volatile emissions due to arctic summer warming, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.121, pp.895-902, 2016.

M. Liu, Y. Song, T. Zhou, Z. Xu, C. Yan et al., Fine particle pH during severe haze episodes in northern China, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.44, pp.5213-5221, 2017.

, Updated Oakridge-Westfir PM 2.5 attainment plan, Climates of the Soviet Union, vol.7, 1977.

M. Maahn, G. De-boer, J. M. Creamean, G. Feingold, G. M. Mcfarquhar et al., The observed influence of local anthropogenic pollution on northern Alaskan cloud properties, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.17, issue.23, pp.709-723, 2017.

M. Macias-fauria and E. A. Johnson, Climate and wildfires in the North American boreal forest, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, vol.363, pp.2315-2327, 1501.

M. Macias-fauria, B. C. Forbes, P. Zetterberg, and T. Kumpula, Eurasian Arctic greening reveals teleconnections and the potential for structurally novel ecosystems, Nature Climate Change, vol.2, p.613, 2012.

M. C. Mack, M. S. Bret-harte, T. N. Hollingsworth, R. R. Jandt, E. A. Schuur et al., Carbon loss from an unprecedented Arctic tundra wildfire, Nature, vol.475, p.489, 2011.

L. Marelle, J. L. Thomas, J. C. Raut, K. S. Law, J. P. Jalkanen et al., Air quality and radiative impacts of Arctic shipping emissions in the summertime in northern Norway: From the local to the regional scale, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.4, pp.2359-2379, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01175648

J. A. Mayfield and G. J. Fochesatto, The layered structure of the winter atmospheric boundary layer in the interior of, Alaska. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol.52, issue.4, pp.953-973, 2013.

J. R. Mccabe, J. Savarino, B. Alexander, S. Gong, and M. H. Thiemens, Isotopic constraints on non-photochemical sulfate production in the Arctic winter, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.33, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00375726

W. N. Meier, G. K. Hovelsrud, B. E. Van-oort, J. R. Key, K. M. Kovacs et al., Arctic sea ice in transformation: A review of recent observed changes and impacts on biology and human activity, Reviews of Geophysics, vol.52, pp.185-217, 2014.

E. F. Mikhailov, G. N. Mironov, C. Pöhlker, X. Chi, M. L. Krüger et al., Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.15, issue.15, pp.8847-8869, 2015.

M. Mitchell, Visual range in the polar regions with particular reference to the Alaskan Arctic, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, Special Supplement, pp.195-211, 1957.

O. S. Mitsui and . Lines, Ice-breaking LNG carrier for Yamal LNG project named Vladimir Rusanov-New milestone with MOL's 1st vessel for world's first ice-breaking LNG carrier project, 2017.

N. Mölders, H. N. Tran, C. F. Cahill, K. Leelasakultum, and T. T. Tran, Assessment of WRF/Chem PM 2.5 forecasts using mobile and fixed location data from the Fairbanks, Alaska winter 2008/09 field campaign, Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol.3, issue.2, pp.180-191, 2012.

S. A. Monks, S. R. Arnold, and M. P. Chipperfield, Evidence for El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence on Arctic CO interannual variability through biomass burning emissions, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.39, p.14804, 2012.

S. A. Monks, S. R. Arnold, L. K. Emmons, K. S. Law, S. Turquety et al., Multi-model study of chemical and physical controls on transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution to the Arctic, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.15, issue.6, pp.3575-3603, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01070702

P. Nieminen, D. Panychev, S. Lyalyushkin, G. Komarov, A. Nikanov et al., Environmental exposure as an independent risk factor of chronic bronchitis in northwest Russia, International Journal of Circumpolar Health, vol.72, issue.1, p.742, 2013.

, Drilling in Arctic refuge gets a green light, 2017.

H. D. Osthoff, J. M. Roberts, A. R. Ravishankara, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner et al., High levels of nitryl chloride in the polluted subtropical marine boundary layer, Nature Geoscience, vol.1, 2008.

J. E. Overland and M. Wang, When will the summer Arctic be nearly sea ice free?, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.40, pp.2097-2101, 2013.

S. N. Pandis, J. H. Seinfeld, and C. Pilinis, Heterogeneous sulfate production in an urban fog, Atmospheric Environment. Part A. General Topics, vol.26, issue.14, pp.2509-2522, 1992.

J. D. Paris, A. Stohl, P. Nedelec, M. Y. Arshinov, M. V. Panchenko et al., Wildfire smoke in the Siberian Arctic in summer: Source characterization and plume evolution from airborne measurements, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.9, issue.23, p.000272689600016, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00416203

G. P. Peters, T. B. Nilssen, L. Lindholt, M. S. Eide, S. Glomsrød et al., Future emissions from shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.11, issue.11, pp.5305-5320, 2011.

A. Pillarisetti, S. Mehta, and K. R. Smith, HAPIT, the household air pollution intervention tool, to evaluate the health benefits and costeffectiveness of clean cooking interventions, Broken Pumps and Promises: Incentivizing Impact in Environmental Health, pp.147-169, 2016.

S. M. Platt, I. Haddad, S. M. Pieber, A. A. Zardini, R. Suarez-bertoa et al., Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars, Scientific Reports, vol.7, issue.1, p.4926, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01656074

O. B. Popovicheva, N. Evangeliou, K. Eleftheriadis, A. C. Kalogridis, N. Sitnikov et al., Black carbon sources constrained by observations in the Russian high Arctic, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.51, issue.7, pp.3871-3879, 2017.

M. J. Potosnak, B. M. Baker, L. Lestourgeon, S. M. Disher, K. L. Griffin et al., Isoprene emissions from a tundra ecosystem, Biogeosciences, vol.10, issue.2, pp.871-889, 2013.

M. Prank, M. Sofiev, H. A. Denier-van-der-gon, M. Kaasik, T. M. Ruuskanen et al., A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling, The climate of the Arctic, vol.10, pp.849-859, 2003.

R. W. Rae, Meteorological activities in the Canadian Arctic, In Arctic research: The current status of research and some problems in the north American Arctic and subarctic, Arctic, vol.7, issue.3, pp.119-128, 1954.

J. T. Randerson, H. Liu, M. G. Flanner, S. D. Chambers, Y. Jin et al., The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming, Science, vol.314, issue.5802, 2006.

P. Rantala, J. Aalto, R. Taipale, T. M. Ruuskanen, J. ;. Rinne et al., Annual cycle of volatile organic compound exchange between a boreal pine forest and the atmosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.12, issue.19, pp.4654-4662, 2015.

D. A. Ridley, M. Cain, J. Methven, and S. R. Arnold, Sensitivity of tropospheric ozone to chemical kinetic uncertainties in air masses influenced by anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.44, pp.7472-7481, 2017.

R. Rinnan, M. Steinke, T. Mcgenity, and F. Loreto, Plant volatiles in extreme terrestrial and marine environments, Plant, Cell & Environment, vol.37, issue.8, pp.1776-1789, 2014.

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, and Ü. Rannik, Canopy scale monoterpene emissions of Pinus sylvestris dominated forests, Atmospheric Environment, vol.34, issue.7, pp.1099-1107, 2000.

J. Rinne, J. Tuovinen, T. Laurila, H. Hakola, M. Aurela et al., Measurements of hydrocarbon fluxes by a gradient method above a northern boreal forest, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol.102, issue.1, pp.25-37, 2000.

E. Robinson, W. C. Thuman, and E. J. Wiggins, Ice fog as problem of air pollution in the Arctic, Arctic, pp.88-104, 1957.

A. Roiger, J. Thomas, H. Schlager, K. S. Law, J. Kim et al., Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: The ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.96, issue.3, pp.441-460, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01054384

N. P. Romanov, The evolution of microstructure of morning fogs, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, vol.2, pp.22-28, 2001.

T. Ruoho-airola, P. Anttila, H. Hakola, T. Ryyppö, and J. Tuovinen, trends in the bulk deposition and atmospheric concentration of air pollutants in the Finnish integrated monitoring catchment Pallas during 1992-2012, Boreal Environment Research, vol.20, issue.4, pp.553-569, 2015.

T. B. Ryerson, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, D. D. Parrish, L. G. Huey et al., Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies, Science, vol.292, issue.5517, pp.719-723, 2001.

J. Sandradewi, A. S. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, R. Schmidhauser, M. Gysel et al., A study of wood burning and traffic aerosols in an Alpine valley using a multi-wavelength Aethalometer, Atmospheric Environment, vol.42, issue.1, pp.101-112, 2008.

J. Schmale, E. Von-schneidemesser, and A. Dörrie, An integrated assessment method for sustainable transport system planning in a middle sized German city, Sustainability, vol.7, issue.2, pp.1329-1354, 2015.

R. C. Schnell, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, P. Cullis, C. Sterling et al., Quantifying wintertime boundary layer ozone production from frequent profile measurements in the Uinta Basin, UT, oil and gas region, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.121, pp.38-49, 2016.

M. Schollert, S. Burchard, P. Faubert, A. Michelsen, and R. Rinnan, Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in four vegetation types in high arctic Greenland, Polar Biology, vol.37, issue.2, pp.237-249, 2014.

C. E. Scott, S. R. Arnold, S. A. Monks, A. Asmi, P. Paasonen et al., Substantial large-scale feedbacks between natural aerosols and climate, Nature Geoscience, vol.11, issue.1, pp.44-48, 2018.

R. Seidl, F. Brand, M. Stauffacher, P. Krütli, Q. Le et al., Science with society in the Anthropocene, Ambio, vol.42, issue.1, pp.5-12, 2013.

N. Sergent, Uncertainties in black carbon emissions in the Russian Arctic, 2017.

M. C. Serreze and R. G. Barry, The Arctic climate system, 2005.

M. C. Serreze, R. C. Schnell, and J. D. Kahl, Low-level temperature inversions of the Eurasian Arctic and comparisons with soviet drifting station data, Journal of Climate, vol.5, issue.6, pp.615-629, 1992.

S. Sharma, M. Ishizawa, D. Chan, D. Lavoué, E. Andrews et al., 16-year simulation of arctic black carbon: Transport, source contribution, and sensitivity analysis on deposition, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.118, pp.943-964, 2013.

D. Shindell, J. C. Kuylenstierna, E. Vignati, R. Van-dingenen, M. Amann et al., Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security, Science, vol.335, issue.6065, p.000299033100044, 2012.

T. Sigsgaard, B. Forsberg, I. Annesi-maesano, A. Blomberg, A. Bølling et al., Health impacts of anthropogenic biomass burning in the developed world, European Respiratory Journal, vol.46, issue.6, pp.1577-1588, 2015.

I. J. Simpson, S. K. Akagi, B. Barletta, N. J. Blake, Y. Choi et al., Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C 1-C 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO 2 , CO, NO 2 , NO, HCN and CH 3 CN, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.11, issue.13, pp.6445-6463, 2011.

R. Singleton, A. J. Salkoski, L. Bulkow, C. Fish, J. Dobson et al., Impact of home remediation and household education on indoor air quality, respiratory visits and symptoms in Alaska native children, International Journal of Circumpolar Health, vol.77, issue.1, p.669, 2018.

S. Sitch, P. M. Cox, W. J. Collins, and C. Huntingford, Indirect radiative forcing of climate change through ozone effects on the landcarbon sink, Nature, vol.448, p.791, 2007.

L. C. Smith and S. R. Stephenson, New Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.110, pp.1191-1195, 2013.

C. Spirig, A. Guenther, J. P. Greenberg, P. Calanca, and V. Tarvainen, Tethered balloon measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds at a boreal forest site, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.4, issue.1, pp.215-229, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00301293

A. Stohl, B. Aamaas, M. Amann, L. H. Baker, N. Bellouin et al., Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of shortlived pollutants, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.15, issue.18, pp.529-539, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01159851

A. Stohl, T. Berg, J. F. Burkhart, A. M. Fjaeraa, C. Forster et al., Arctic smoke-Record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.7, p.000243837400002, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00296130

A. Stohl, Z. Klimont, S. Eckhardt, K. Kupiainen, V. P. Shevchenko et al., Black carbon in the Arctic: The underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.13, issue.17, pp.8833-8855, 2013.

J. Tang, G. Schurgers, H. Valolahti, P. Faubert, P. Tiiva et al., Challenges in modelling isoprene and monoterpene emission dynamics of Arctic plants: A case study from a subarctic tundra heath, Biogeosciences, vol.13, issue.24, pp.6651-6667, 2016.

J. L. Thomas, C. M. Polashenski, A. J. Soja, L. Marelle, K. A. Casey et al., Quantifying black carbon deposition over the Greenland ice sheet from forest fires in Canada, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.44, pp.7965-7974, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01631372

J. A. Thornton, J. P. Kercher, T. P. Riedel, N. L. Wagner, J. Cozic et al., A large atomic chlorine source inferred from midcontinental reactive nitrogen chemistry, Nature, vol.464, p.271, 2010.

H. N. Tran and N. Mölders, Investigations on meteorological conditions for elevated PM 2.5 in Fairbanks, Alaska. Atmospheric Research, vol.99, issue.1, pp.39-49, 2011.

H. N. Tran and N. Mölders, Wood-burning device changeout: Modeling the impact on PM 2.5 concentrations in a remote subarctic urban nonattainment area, Advances in Meteorology, vol.12, 2012.

P. Tuccella, J. L. Thomas, K. S. Law, J. C. Raut, L. Marelle et al., Air pollution impacts due to petroleum extraction in the Norwegian Sea during the ACCESS aircraft campaign, Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, vol.5, issue.25, pp.1-2, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01538609

P. Tunved, H. Hansson, V. Kerminen, J. Ström, M. D. Maso et al., High natural aerosol loading over boreal forests, Science, issue.5771, pp.261-263, 2006.

M. R. Turetsky, B. Benscoter, S. Page, G. Rein, G. R. Van-der-werf et al., Global vulnerability of peatlands to fire and carbon loss, Nature Geoscience, vol.8, p.11, 2014.

M. R. Turetsky, E. S. Kane, J. W. Harden, R. D. Ottmar, K. L. Manies et al., Recent acceleration of biomass burning and carbon losses in Alaskan forests and peatlands, Nature Geoscience, vol.4, p.27, 2010.

T. Uttal, S. Starkweather, J. R. Drummond, T. Vihma, A. P. Makshtas et al., International Arctic systems for observing the atmosphere: An international polar year legacy consortium, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.97, issue.6, pp.1033-1056, 2016.

D. P. Van-vuuren, J. Edmonds, M. Kainuma, K. Riahi, A. Thomson et al., Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation, Atmospheric Environment, vol.109, issue.1, pp.129-137, 2011.

A. Vasileva, K. Moiseenko, A. Skorokhod, I. Belikov, V. Kopeikin et al., Emission ratios of trace gases and particles for Siberian forest fires on the basis of mobile ground observations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, pp.1-41, 2017.

I. Vedel-petersen, M. Schollert, J. Nymand, and R. Rinnan, Volatile organic compound emission profiles of four common arctic plants, Atmospheric Environment, vol.120, pp.117-126, 2015.

M. Viana, P. Hammingh, A. Colette, X. Querol, B. Degraeuwe et al., Impact of maritime transport emissions on coastal air quality in Europe, Atmospheric Environment, vol.90, pp.96-105, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-01862411

T. Vos, C. Allen, M. Arora, R. M. Barber, Z. A. Bhutta et al., Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, The Lancet, vol.388, pp.31678-31684, 2015.

C. F. Waigl, M. Stuefer, A. Prakash, and C. Ichoku, Detecting high and low-intensity fires in Alaska using VIIRS I-band data: An improved operational approach for high latitudes, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.199, pp.389-400, 2017.

G. Wang, R. Zhang, M. E. Gomez, L. Yang, M. Levy-zamora et al., Persistent sulfate formation from London fog to Chinese haze, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.113, issue.48, pp.630-643, 2016.

Y. Wang and P. K. Hopke, Is Alaska truly the great escape from air pollution? Long term source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Fairbanks, Alaska. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol.14, issue.7, pp.1875-1882, 2014.

Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, J. Jiang, W. Zhou, B. Wang et al., Enhanced sulfate formation during China's severe winter haze episode in January 2013 missing from current models, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.119, pp.425-410, 2014.

T. Ward, B. Trost, J. Conner, J. Flanagan, and R. K. Jayanty, Source apportionment of PM 2.5 in a subarctic Airshed-Fairbanks, Alaska. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol.12, issue.4, pp.536-543, 2012.

D. N. Ware, J. Lewis, S. Hopkins, B. Boyer, L. Montrose et al., Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities, International Journal of Circumpolar Health, vol.73, issue.1, 2014.

P. Warneck, Chemical reactions in clouds, Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol.340, issue.9, pp.585-590, 1991.

P. Warneck, The relative importance of various pathways for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in sunlit continental fair weather clouds, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol.1, issue.24, pp.5471-5483, 1999.

C. Warneke, R. Bahreini, J. Brioude, C. A. Brock, J. A. De-gouw et al., Biomass burning in Siberia and Kazakhstan as an important source for haze over the Alaskan Arctic in, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.36, 2008.

R. J. Wild, P. M. Edwards, T. S. Bates, R. C. Cohen, J. A. De-gouw et al., Reactive nitrogen partitioning and its relationship to winter ozone events in Utah, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.2, pp.435-459, 1929.

P. Winiger, A. Andersson, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, I. P. Semiletov et al., Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.114, issue.7, 2017.

M. Winther, J. H. Christensen, I. Angelidis, and E. S. Ravn, Emissions from shipping in the Arctic from 2012-2016 and emission projections for 2020, 2017.

M. Winther, J. H. Christensen, M. S. Plejdrup, E. S. Ravn, Ó. F. Eriksson et al., Emission inventories for ships in the arctic based on satellite sampled AIS data, Atmospheric Environment, vol.91, pp.1-14, 2014.

H. Ye, The influence of air temperature and atmospheric circulation on winter fog frequency over Northern Eurasia, International Journal of Climatology, vol.29, issue.5, pp.729-734, 2009.

K. E. Yttri, C. Lund-myhre, S. Eckhardt, M. Fiebig, C. Dye et al., Quantifying black carbon from biomass burning by means of levoglucosan-A one-year time series at the Arctic observatory zeppelin, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.14, issue.12, pp.6427-6442, 2014.

X. Yue, S. Strada, N. Unger, and A. Wang, Future inhibition of ecosystem productivity by increasing wildfire pollution over boreal North America, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.17, issue.22, pp.699-712, 2017.

P. Zhou, L. Ganzeveld, D. Taipale, Ü. Rannik, P. Rantala et al., Boreal forest BVOCs exchange: Emissions versus incanopy sinks, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, pp.1-36, 2017.