Phase Equilibria of Pantelleria Trachytes (Italy): Constraints on Pre-eruptive Conditions and on the Metaluminous to Peralkaline Transition in Silicic Magmas

Abstract : The relationships between trachytes and peralkaline rhyolites (i.e. pantellerites and comendites), which occur in many continental rift systems, oceanic islands and continental intraplate settings, is unclear. To fill this gap, we have performed phase equilibrium experiments on two representative metaluminous trachytes from Pantelleria to determine both their pre-eruptive equilibration conditions (pressure, temperature, H2O content and redox state) and liquid lines of descent. Experiments were performed in the temperature range 750-950 °C, pressure 0·5-1·5 kbar and fluid saturation conditions with XH2O [=H2O/(H2O+CO2)] ranging between zero and unity. Redox conditions were fixed below the nickel-nickel oxide buffer (NNO). The results show that at 950 °C and melt water contents (H2Omelt) close to saturation, trachytes are at liquidus conditions at all pressures. Clinopyroxene is the liquidus phase, being followed by iron-rich olivine and alkali feldspar. Comparison of experimental and natural phases (abundances and compositions) yields the following pre-eruptive conditions: P=160·5 kbar, T=925±25 °C, H2Omelt = 261 wt %, and fO2 between NNO- 0·5 and NNO- 2. A decrease in temperature from 950 °C to 750 °C, as well as of H2Omelt, promotes a massive crystallization of alkali feldspar to over 80 wt %. Iron-bearing minerals show gradual iron enrichment when T and fO2 decrease, trending towards the compositions of the phenocrysts of natural pantellerites. Despite the metaluminous character of the bulk-rock compositions, residual glasses obtained after 80 wt % crystallization evolve toward comenditic compositions, owing to profuse alkali feldspar crystallization, which decreases the Al2O3 of the melt, leading to a consequent increase in the peralkalinity index [PI = molar (Na2O+K2 O)/Al2 O3 ]. This is the first experimental demonstration that peralkaline felsic derivatives can be produced by low-pressure fractional crystallization of metaluminous mafic magmas. Our results show that the pantelleritic magmas of basalt-trachyte-rhyolite igneous suites require at least 95 wt % of parental basalt crystallization, consistent with trace element evidence. Redox conditions, through their effect on Fe-Ti oxide stabilities, control the final iron content of the evolving melt.
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Pierangelo Romano, Joan Andújar, Bruno Scaillet, Nunzia Romengo, Ida Di Carlo, et al.. Phase Equilibria of Pantelleria Trachytes (Italy): Constraints on Pre-eruptive Conditions and on the Metaluminous to Peralkaline Transition in Silicic Magmas. Journal of Petrology, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2018, 59 (3), pp.559 - 588. ⟨10.1093/petrology/egy037⟩. ⟨insu-01882460⟩

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