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Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere

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Anni Määttänen
Franck Montmessin

Abstract

Although resembling an extremely dry desert, planet Mars hosts clouds in its atmosphere. Every day somewhere on the planet a part of the tiny amount of water vapor held by the atmosphere can condense as ice crystals to form cirrus-type clouds. The existence of water ice clouds has been known for a long time, and they have been studied for decades, leading to the establishment of a well-known climatology and understanding of their formation and properties. Despite their thinness, they have a clear impact on the atmospheric temperatures, thus affecting the Martian climate. Another, more exotic type of clouds forms as well on Mars. The atmospheric temperatures can plunge to such frigid values that the major gaseous component of the atmosphere, CO2, condenses as ice crystals. These clouds form in the cold polar night where they also contribute to the formation of the CO2 ice polar cap, and also in the mesosphere at very high altitudes, near the edge of space, analogously to the noctilucent clouds on Earth. The mesospheric clouds are a fairly recent discovery and have put our understanding of the Martian atmosphere to a test. On Mars, cloud crystals form on ice nuclei, mostly provided by the omnipresent dust. Thus, the clouds link the three major climatic cycles: those of the two major volatiles, H2O and CO2; and that of dust, which is a major climatic agent itself.
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Comment : This is article was published in April 2021 by Oxford University Press in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Planetary Science, edited by Peter Read

Dates and versions

insu-01814976 , version 1 (28-04-2021)
insu-01814976 , version 2 (18-05-2021)

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Anni Määttänen, Franck Montmessin. Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere. Peter Read. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Planetary Science, Oxford University Press, 2021, 978-0-190-64792-6. ⟨10.1093/acrefore/9780190647926.013.114⟩. ⟨insu-01814976v2⟩
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