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ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596), a model for northern peatland CO$_2$ water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales

Chunjing Qiu 1 Dan Zhu 1 Philippe Ciais 1, 2 Bertrand Guenet 1 Gerhard Krinner 3 Shushi Peng 4 Mika Aurela 5 Christian Bernhofer 6 Christian Brümmer 7 Syndonia Bret-Harte 8 Housen Chu 9 Jiquan Chen 10 Ankur Desai 11 Jiří Dušek 12 Eugénie Euskirchen 8 Krzysztof Fortuniak 13 Lawrence Flanagan 14 Thomas Friborg 15 Mateusz Grygoruk 16 Sébastien Gogo 17, 18 Thomas Grünwald 19 Birger Hansen 15 David Holl 20 Elyn Humphreys 21 Miriam Hurkuck 21 Gerard Kiely 22 Janina Klatt 23 Lars Kutzbach 20 Chloé Largeron 1 Fatima Laggoun-Défarge 17, 18 Magnus Lund 24 Peter Lafleur 25 Xuefei Li 26 Ivan Mammarella 26 Lutz Merbold 27 Mats Nilsson 28 Janusz Olejnik 29, 12 Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius 28 Walter Oechel Frans-Jan Parmentier Matthias Peichl 28 Norbert Pirk Olli Peltola 26 Włodzimierz Pawlak Daniel Rasse Janne Rinne Gaius Shaver Hans Schmid 30 Matteo Sottocornola Rainer Steinbrecher Torsten Sachs 31 Marek Urbaniak 29 Donatella Zona Klaudia Ziemblinska 29
2 ICOS-ATC - ICOS-ATC
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
18 Biogéosystèmes Continentaux - UMR7327
ISTO - Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans - UMR7327 : UMR7327
Abstract : Peatlands store substantial amounts of carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We present a modified version of the Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model for simulating the hydrology, surface energy, and CO$_2$ fluxes of peatlands on daily to annual timescales. The model includes a separate soil tile in each 0.5° grid cell, defined from a global peatland map and identified with peat-specific soil hydraulic properties. Runoff from non-peat vegetation within a grid cell containing a fraction of peat is routed to this peat soil tile, which maintains shallow water tables. The water table position separates oxic from anoxic decomposition. The model was evaluated against eddy-covariance (EC) observations from 30 northern peatland sites, with the maximum rate of car-boxylation (V$_{cmax}$) being optimized at each site. Regarding short-term day-today variations, the model performance was good for gross primary production (GPP) ($r^2$ = 0.76; Nash– Sutcliffe modeling efficiency, MEF = 0.76) and ecosystem respiration (ER, $r^2$ = 0.78, MEF = 0.75), with lesser accuracy for latent heat fluxes (LE, $r^2$ = 0.42, MEF = 0.14) and and net ecosystem CO$_2$ exchange (NEE, $r^2$ = 0.38, MEF = 0.26). Seasonal variations in GPP, ER, NEE, and energy fluxes on monthly scales showed moderate to high $r^2$ values (0.57–0.86). For spatial across-site gradients of annual mean GPP, ER, NEE, and LE, $r^2$ values of 0.93, 0.89, 0.27, and 0.71 were achieved, respectively. Water table (WT) variation was not well predicted ($r^2$ < 0.1), likely due to the uncertain water input to the peat from surrounding areas. However , the poor performance of WT simulation did not greatly affect predictions of ER and NEE. We found a significant relationship between optimized V$_{cmax}$ and latitude (temperature), which better reflects the spatial gradients of annual NEE than using an average V$_{cmax}$ value.
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Chunjing Qiu, Dan Zhu, Philippe Ciais, Bertrand Guenet, Gerhard Krinner, et al.. ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596), a model for northern peatland CO$_2$ water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales. Geoscientific Model Development, European Geosciences Union, 2018, 11, pp.497 - 519. ⟨10.5194/gmd-11-497-2018⟩. ⟨insu-01719357⟩

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