Direct Observations of Asteroid Interior and Regolith Structure: Science Measurement Requirements

Alain Hérique 1 Benoit Agnus 2 Erik I. Asphaug 3 Maria Antonella Barucci 4 Pierre Beck 1 Julie Bellerose 5 Jens Biele 6 Lydie Bonal 1 Pierre Bousquet 7 Lorenzo Bruzzone 8 Christopher Buck 9 Ian Carnelli 10 Andrew Cheng 11 Valérie Ciarletti 12 Marco Delbo 13 J. Du 14 X. Du 15 Christelle Eyraud 16, 17 W. Fa 14 Jesus Gil-Fernandez 9 Oriane Gassot 1 Ricardo Granados-Alfaro 1 Simon F. Green 18 B. Grieger 19 Jan Thimo Grundmann 20 J. Grygorczuk 21 Ronny Hahnel 15 Essam Heggy 5, 22 T.-M. Ho 20 Özgür Karatekin 23 Y. Kasaba 24 T. Kobayashi 25 Wlodek Kofman 1, 26 C. Krause 6 A. Kumamoto 24 Michael Küppers 19 M. Laabs 15 C. Lange 20 Jeremie Lasue 27 Anny Chantal Levasseur-Regourd 12 A. Mallet 7 P. Michel 13 Stefano Mottola 20 N. Murdoch 28 Marco Mütze 15 J. Oberst 29 Roberto Orosei 30 Dirk Plettermeier 31 Sylvain Rochat 1 Raquel Rodriguez-Suquet 7 Yves Rogez 1 P. Schaffer 15 Colin Snodgrass 32 Jean-Claude Souyris 7 M. Tokarz 21 Stephan Ulamec 6 Jan-Erik Wahlund 33 Sonia Zine 1
12 IMPEC - LATMOS
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
17 HIPE - HIPE
FRESNEL - Institut FRESNEL
Abstract : Our knowledge of the internal structure of asteroids is, so far, indirect – relying entirely on inferences from remote sensing observations of the surface, and theoretical modeling of formation and evolution. What are the bulk properties of the regolith and deep interior? And what are the physical processes that shape asteroid internal structures? Is the composition and size distribution observed on the surface representative of the bulk? These questions are crucial to understand small bodies’ history from accretion in the early Solar System to the present, and direct measurements are needed to answer these questions for the benefit of science as well as for planetary defense or exploration. Radar is one of the main instruments capable of sounding asteroids to characterize internal structure from sub-meter to global scale. In this paper, we review the science case for direct observation of the deep internal structure and regolith of a rocky asteroid of kilometer size or smaller. We establish the requirements and model dielectric properties of asteroids to outline a possible instrument suite, and highlight the capabilities of radar instrumentation to achieve these observations. We then review the expected science return including secondary objectives contributing to the determination of the gravitational field, the shape model, and the dynamical state. This work is largely inherited from MarcoPolo-R and AIDA/AIM studies.
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Advances in Space Research, Elsevier, 2018, 62 (8), pp.2141-2162. 〈10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.020〉
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Alain Hérique, Benoit Agnus, Erik I. Asphaug, Maria Antonella Barucci, Pierre Beck, et al.. Direct Observations of Asteroid Interior and Regolith Structure: Science Measurement Requirements. Advances in Space Research, Elsevier, 2018, 62 (8), pp.2141-2162. 〈10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.020〉. 〈insu-01624991〉

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