M. Amodio, E. Andriani, I. Cafagna, M. Caselli, B. E. Daresta et al., A statistical investigation about sources of PM in South Italy, Atmospheric Research, vol.98, issue.2-4, pp.207-218, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.03.023

M. E. Birch, Analysis of carbonaceous aerosols: interlaboratory comparison, The Analyst, vol.123, issue.5, pp.851-857, 1998.
DOI : 10.1039/a800028j

M. Bressi, J. Sciare, V. Ghersi, and N. Bonnaire, A one-year comprehensive chemical characterisation of fine aerosol (PM2.5) at urban, suburban and rural background sites in the region of Paris (France) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 2012.

J. Cao, B. Xu, J. He, X. Liu, Y. Han et al., Concentrations, seasonal variations, and transport of carbonaceous aerosols at a remote Mountainous region in western China, Atmospheric Environment, vol.43, issue.29, pp.4444-4452, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.06.023

A. Caseiro, H. Bauer, C. Schmidl, C. A. Pio, and H. Puxbaum, Wood burning impact on PM10 in three Austrian regions, Atmospheric Environment, vol.43, issue.13, pp.2186-2195, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.01.012

F. Cavalli, M. Viana, K. E. Yttri, J. Genberg, and J. P. Putaud, Toward a standardised thermal-optical protocol for measuring atmospheric organic and elemental carbon: the EUSAAR protocol, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol.3, issue.1, pp.79-895194, 2010.
DOI : 10.5194/amt-3-79-2010-supplement

F. Cazier, P. Genevray, D. Dewaele, H. Nouali, A. Verdin et al., Characterisation and seasonal variations of particles in the atmosphere of rural, urban and industrial areas: Organic compounds, Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol.44, pp.45-56, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jes.2016.01.014

Y. Chen, G. Zhi, Y. Feng, J. Fu, J. Feng et al., Measurements of emission factors for primary carbonaceous particles from residential raw-coal combustion in China, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.38, issue.D21, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/0960-1686(91)90070-N

J. Choi, J. Heo, S. Ban, S. Yi, and K. Zoh, Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 aerosol in Incheon, Korea, Atmospheric Environment, vol.60, pp.583-592, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.06.078

J. C. Chow, E. M. Fujita, J. G. Watson, Z. Lu, D. R. Lawson et al., Evaluation of filter-based aerosol measurements during the 1987 Southern California Air Quality Study, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol.27, issue.1, pp.49-80, 1007.
DOI : 10.1016/0960-1686(93)90159-V

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, L. C. Pritchett, W. R. Pierson, C. A. Frazier et al., The dri thermal/optical reflectance carbon analysis system: description, evaluation and applications in U.S. Air quality studies, Atmospheric Environment. Part A. General Topics, vol.27, issue.8, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0960-1686(93)90245-T

S. L. Clegg, P. Brimblecombe, and A. S. Wexler, O at Tropospheric Temperatures, The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol.102, issue.12, pp.2137-2154, 1021.
DOI : 10.1021/jp973042r

K. Dimitriou and P. Kassomenos, Combining AOT, Angstrom Exponent and PM concentration data, with PSCF model, to distinguish fine and coarse aerosol intrusions in Southern France, Atmospheric Research, vol.172, issue.173, pp.74-82
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.01.002

X. Ding, X. M. Wang, B. Gao, X. X. Fu, Q. F. He et al., Tracer-based estimation of secondary organic carbon in the Pearl River Delta, south China, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.36, issue.D5, p.5313, 2012.
DOI : 10.1021/es011275x

F. Duan, K. He, Y. Ma, Y. Jia, F. Yang et al., Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing, China, Chemosphere, vol.60, issue.3, pp.355-364035, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.12.035

A. Fortems-cheiney, G. Dufour, L. Hamaoui-laguel, G. Foret, G. Siour et al., agricultural sources detected by IASI contributing to European spring haze episode, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.15, issue.3, pp.2016-069361, 2016.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-15-12823-2015

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01322800

A. Gelencsér, B. May, D. Simpson, A. Sánchez?ochoa, A. Kasper?giebl et al., Source apportionment of PM2. 5 organic aerosol over Europe: Primary/secondary, natural/anthropogenic, and fossil/biogenic origin, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.112, issue.D23, 2007.

C. Guieu, M. D. Loÿe-pilot, C. Ridame, and C. Thomas, Chemical characterization of the Saharan dust end-member: Some biogeochemical implications for the western Mediterranean Sea, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.59, issue.7, pp.5-6, 2002.
DOI : 10.1130/SPE284-p303

B. Guinot, H. Cachier, and K. Oikonomou, Geochemical perspectives from a new aerosol chemical mass closure, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.7, issue.6, pp.1657-1670, 1657.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-7-1657-2007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328490

L. Hamaoui, Les émissions d'ammoniac par les activités agricoles: impact sur la qualité de l'air, 2012.

D. Hu, L. Li, M. Idir, A. Mellouki, and J. Chen, Size Distribution and Optical Properties of Ambient Aerosols during Autumn in Orleans, France, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol.14, issue.3, pp.744-755, 2014.
DOI : 10.4209/aaqr.2013.07.0252

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00955423

X. Huang, R. Qiu, C. K. Chan, R. Kant, and P. , Evidence of high PM2.5 strong acidity in ammonia-rich atmosphere of Guangzhou, China: Transition in pathways of ambient ammonia to form aerosol ammonium at [NH4+]/[SO42???]=1.5, Atmospheric Research, vol.99, issue.3-4, pp.488-495, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.11.021

J. , P. Frank, R. Rita, V. D. Erika, B. et al., A European aerosol phenomenology- 2: chemical characteristics of particulate matter at kerbside, urban, rural and background sites in Europe, Atmos Environ, 2003.

A. Jedynska, G. Hoek, M. Wang, M. Eeftens, J. Cyrys et al., Spatial variations and development of land use regression models of levoglucosan in four European study areas, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, vol.14, issue.9, pp.13491-135275194, 2014.
DOI : 10.5194/acpd-14-13491-2014-supplement

A. Kfoury, F. Ledoux, C. Roche, G. Delmaire, G. Roussel et al., PM2.5 source apportionment in a French urban coastal site under steelworks emission influences using constrained non-negative matrix factorization receptor model, Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol.40, pp.114-128, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jes.2015.10.025

M. B. Khan, M. Masiol, G. Formenton, D. Gilio, A. De-gennaro et al., Carbonaceous PM2.5 and secondary organic aerosol across the Veneto region (NE Italy) Science of The Total Environment 542, pp.172-181, 2016.

B. M. Kim, S. Teffera, and M. D. Zeldin, in the South Coast Air Basin of Southern California: Part 1???Spatial Variations, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, vol.50, issue.12, pp.2034-2044, 2000.
DOI : 10.1021/bk-1975-0018.ch001

M. Koçak, N. Mihalopoulos, and N. Kubilay, Contributions of natural sources to high PM10 and PM2.5 events in the eastern Mediterranean, Atmospheric Environment, vol.41, issue.18, pp.3806-3818, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.01.009

I. Kourtchev, J. Warnke, W. Maenhaut, T. Hoffmann, and M. Claeys, Polar organic marker compounds in PM2.5 aerosol from a mixed forest site in western Germany, Chemosphere, vol.73, issue.8, pp.1308-1314, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.07.011

Y. Li, J. Cao, J. Li, J. Zhou, H. Xu et al., Molecular distribution and seasonal variation of hydrocarbons in PM2.5 from Beijing during 2006, Particuology, vol.11, issue.1, pp.78-85, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.partic.2012.09.002

X. Liu, W. Zhang, M. Huang, Z. Wang, L. Hao et al., Effect of illumination intensity and light application time on secondary organic aerosol formation from the photooxidation of ??-pinene, Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol.21, issue.4, pp.447-451, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62290-1

T. Maté, R. Guaita, M. Pichiule, C. Linares, and J. Díaz, Short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on daily mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system in Madrid (Spain), Science of The Total Environment, vol.408, issue.23, pp.5750-5757, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.07.083

K. Na, A. A. Sawant, C. Song, C. Iii, and D. R. , Primary and secondary carbonaceous species in the atmosphere of Western Riverside County, California, Atmospheric Environment, vol.38, issue.9, pp.1345-1355, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.11.023

H. Patashnick and E. G. Rupprecht, Continuous PM-10 Measurements Using the Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, vol.41, issue.8, pp.1079-1083, 1991.
DOI : 10.1080/10473289.1991.10466903

S. Pateraki, D. N. Asimakopoulos, A. Bougiatioti, T. Maggos, C. Vasilakos et al., Assessment of PM2.5 and PM1 chemical profile in a multiple-impacted Mediterranean urban area: Origin, sources and meteorological dependence. Science of The Total Environment 479, pp.210-220, 2014.

R. K. Pathak, T. Wang, K. F. Ho, and S. C. Lee, Characteristics of summertime PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon in four major Chinese cities: Implications of high acidity for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), Atmospheric Environment, vol.45, issue.2, pp.318-325, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.10.021

R. K. Pathak, W. S. Wu, and T. Wang, Summertime PM2.5 ionic species in four major cities of China: nitrate formation in an ammonia-deficient atmosphere, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00304253

J. Peñuelas and J. Llusià, BVOCs: plant defense against climate warming?, Trends in Plant Science, vol.8, issue.3, pp.105-109, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1360-1385(03)00008-6

J. Pey, N. Pérez, S. Castillo, M. Viana, T. Moreno et al., Geochemistry of regional background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean, Atmospheric Research, vol.94, issue.3, pp.422-435, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.07.001

G. Pirovano, C. Colombi, A. Balzarini, G. M. Riva, V. Gianelle et al., PM2.5 source apportionment in Lombardy (Italy): Comparison of receptor and chemistry-transport modelling results, Atmospheric Environment, vol.106, pp.56-70, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.01.073

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-00970800

J. P. Putaud, R. Van-dingenen, A. Alastuey, H. Bauer, W. Birmili et al., A European aerosol phenomenology ??? 3: Physical and chemical characteristics of particulate matter from 60 rural, urban, and kerbside sites across Europe, Atmospheric Environment, vol.44, issue.10, pp.1308-1320, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.12.011

I. S. Razak, M. T. Latif, S. A. Jaafar, M. F. Khan, and I. Mushrifah, Surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater around lake ecosystem, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.33, issue.8, pp.6024-6033, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/S0021-8502(01)00189-6

C. Reche, M. Viana, F. Amato, A. Alastuey, T. Moreno et al., Biomass burning contributions to urban aerosols in a coastal Mediterranean City, Science of The Total Environment, vol.427, issue.428, pp.175-190, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.012

W. Rogula-koz?owska, K. Klejnowski, P. Rogula-kopiec, L. O?ródka, E. Krajny et al., Spatial and seasonal variability of the mass concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 in Poland, Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, vol.45, issue.3, pp.41-58, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.10.043

J. A. Salmond, A review of turbulence in the very stable nocturnal boundary layer and its implications for air quality, Progress in Physical Geography, vol.38, issue.24, pp.171-188, 2005.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<1674:TROVMI>2.0.CO;2

C. Samara, D. Voutsa, A. Kouras, K. Eleftheriadis, T. Maggos et al., Organic and elemental carbon associated to PM10 and PM2.5 at urban sites of northern Greece, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.72, issue.3, pp.1769-1785, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.02.026

J. J. Schauer, M. J. Kleeman, G. R. Cass, and B. R. Simoneit, Organic Compounds from Gasoline-Powered Motor Vehicles, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.36, issue.6, pp.1169-1180, 2002.
DOI : 10.1021/es0108077

J. Sciare, K. Oikonomou, H. Cachier, and N. Mihalopoulos, Aerosol mass closure and reconstruction of the light scattering coefficient over the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the MINOS campaign, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328399

J. F. Sisler and D. Huffman, Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States, J Geophys Res. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol.99, issue.D1, pp.1347-1370, 1994.

B. Srinivas and M. M. Sarin, PM2.5, EC and OC in atmospheric outflow from the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Temporal variability and aerosol organic carbon-to-organic mass conversion factor, Science of The Total Environment, vol.487, pp.196-205, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.002

A. F. Stein, R. R. Draxler, G. D. Rolph, B. J. Stunder, M. D. Cohen et al., NOAA???s HYSPLIT Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Modeling System, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.96, issue.12, 2015.
DOI : 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00110.2

J. Tao, Z. Shen, C. Zhu, J. Yue, J. Cao et al., Seasonal variations and chemical characteristics of sub-micrometer particles (PM1) in Guangzhou, China, Atmospheric Research, vol.118, pp.222-231, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.06.025

Y. Tian, G. Shi, Y. Huang-fu, D. Song, J. Liu et al., Seasonal and regional variations of source contributions for PM10 and PM2.5 in urban environment, Science of The Total Environment, vol.557558, pp.697-704, 2016.

B. J. Turpin and H. Lim, Species Contributions to PM2.5 Mass Concentrations: Revisiting Common Assumptions for Estimating Organic Mass, Aerosol Science and Technology, vol.35, issue.1, pp.602-610, 2001.
DOI : 10.1080/02786820119445

R. C. Urban, M. Lima-souza, L. Caetano-silva, M. E. Queiroz, R. F. Nogueira et al., Use of levoglucosan, potassium, and water-soluble organic carbon to characterize the origins of biomass-burning aerosols, Atmospheric Environment, vol.61, pp.562-569, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.07.082

F. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Cheng, X. Lv, W. Gong et al., Seasonal variations and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in Wuhan, central China, Science of The Total Environment, vol.518, issue.519, pp.97-105, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.054