M. Adon, C. Galy-lacaux, V. Yoboué, C. Delon, J. P. Lacaux et al., Long term measurements of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, nitric acid and ozone in Africa using passive samplers, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.10, issue.15, pp.7467-7487, 2010.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-10-7467-2010

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00985080

M. Adon, C. Galy-lacaux, C. Delon, V. Yoboue, F. Solmon et al., Dry deposition of nitrogen compounds NH 3 ), sulfur dioxide and ozone in west and central African ecosystems using the inferential method, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.3, issue.13, pp.11351-11374, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00910719

S. K. Akagi, R. J. Yokelson, C. Wiedinmyer, M. J. Alvarado, J. S. Reid et al., Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.11, issue.9, pp.4039-4072, 2011.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-11-4039-2011-supplement

M. J. Alvarado, K. E. Cady-pereira, Y. Xiao, D. B. Millet, and V. H. Payne, Emission Ratios for Ammonia and Formic Acid and Observations of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN) and Ethylene in Biomass Burning Smoke as Seen by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), Atmosphere, vol.99, issue.4, pp.633-654, 2011.
DOI : 10.1029/93JD02091

M. Andreae and P. Merlet, Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.34, issue.4, pp.955-966, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00450-1

M. O. Andreae, E. V. Browell, M. Garstang, G. L. Gregory, R. C. Harriss et al., Biomass-burning emissions and associated haze layers over Amazonia, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.93, issue.D2, pp.1509-1527, 1988.
DOI : 10.1029/JD093iD02p01377

V. P. Aneja, B. Bunton, J. T. Walker, M. , and B. P. , Measurement and analysis of atmospheric ammonia emissions from anaerobic lagoons, Atmospheric Environment, vol.35, issue.11, pp.1949-1958, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00547-1

S. Bauduin, L. Clarisse, M. Theunissen, M. George, D. Hurtmans et al., IASI's sensitivity to near-surface carbon monoxide (CO): Theoretical analyses and retrievals on test cases, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol.189, pp.428-440, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.12.022

S. N. Behera, M. Sharma, V. P. Aneja, and R. Balasubramanian, Ammonia in the atmosphere: a review on emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and deposition on terrestrial bodies, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.33, issue.6, pp.8092-8131, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00305-7

K. B. Benedict, A. J. Prenni, C. M. Carrico, A. P. Sullivan, B. A. Schichtel et al., Enhanced concentrations of reactive nitrogen species in wildfire smoke, Atmospheric Environment, vol.148, pp.8-15, 2017.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.10.030

I. Bertschi, R. J. Yokelson, D. E. Ward, R. E. Babbitt, R. A. Susott et al., Trace gas and particle emissions from fires in large diameter and belowground biomass fuels, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.108, issue.D14, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JD002322

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2002JD002100/pdf

A. Bouwman, D. Lee, W. Asman, F. Dentener, K. Van-der-hoek et al., A global high-resolution emission inventory for ammonia, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.18, issue.4, pp.561-587, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01049507

D. Bowman, J. Balch, P. Artaxo, W. Bond, J. Carlson et al., Fire in the Earth System, Fire in the Earth system, pp.481-484, 2009.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1132075

P. Castellanos, K. F. Boersma, and G. R. Van-der-werf, Satellite observations indicate substantial spatiotemporal variability in biomass burning NO x emission factors for South America, Atmos . Chem. Phys, vol.14105194, pp.3929-3943, 2014.

R. A. Chisholm, L. S. Wijedasa, and T. Swinfield, The need for long-term remedies for Indonesia's forest fires, Conservation Biology, vol.61, issue.part 1, pp.5-6, 2016.
DOI : 10.1525/bio.2011.61.1.10

T. J. Christian, R. J. Yokelson, J. A. Carvalho, D. W. Griffith, E. C. Alvarado et al., The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Trace gases emitted by smoldering logs and dung from deforestation and pasture fires in Brazil, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.7, issue.D20, p.18308, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/92JD01218

S. Whitburn, Satellite monitoring of ammonia: a case study of the San Joaquin Valley, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos, vol.115, issue.3, p.13302, 2010.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-lazaro et al., Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder, Atmos . Chem. Phys, vol.95194, issue.10, pp.6041-6054, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00439216

P. Coheur, L. Clarisse, S. Turquety, D. Hurtmans, C. et al., IASI measurements of reactive trace species in biomass burning plumes, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.9105194, pp.5655-5667, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00409704

P. Crutzen and M. Andreae, Biomass Burning in the Tropics: Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry and Biogeochemical Cycles, Science, vol.250, issue.4988, pp.1669-1678, 1990.
DOI : 10.1126/science.250.4988.1669

E. Dammers, M. Palm, M. Van-damme, C. Vigouroux, D. Smale et al., An evaluation of IASI-NH<sub>3</sub> with ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.16, pp.10351-10368, 2016.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-16-10351-2016

F. Dentener and P. Crutzen, A three-dimensional model of the global ammonia cycle, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol.321, issue.4, pp.331-369, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/91JD00118

D. Wachter, E. Barret, B. Le-flochmoën, E. Pavelin, E. Matricardi et al., Retrieval of MetOp-A/IASI CO profiles and validation with MOZAIC data, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol.5, issue.11, pp.2843-2857, 2012.
DOI : 10.5194/amt-5-2843-2012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00695436

J. Erisman, A. Bleeker, J. Galloway, and M. Sutton, Reduced nitrogen in ecology and the environment, Environmental Pollution, vol.150, issue.1, pp.140-149, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.033

M. A. Friedl, D. Sulla-menashe, B. Tan, A. Schneider, N. Ramankutty et al., MODIS Collection 5 global land cover: Algorithm refinements and characterization of new datasets, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.114, issue.1, pp.168-182, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2009.08.016

J. Galloway, F. Dentener, D. Capone, E. Boyer, R. Howarth et al., Nitrogen Cycles: Past, Present, and Future, Biogeochemistry, vol.46, issue.58, pp.153-226, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4615-2812-8_14

M. George, C. Clerbaux, D. Hurtmans, S. Turquety, P. Coheur et al., Carbon monoxide distributions from the IASI/METOP mission: evaluation with other space-borne remote sensors, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.9, issue.21, pp.8317-8330, 2009.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-9-8317-2009

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00429693

M. George, C. Clerbaux, I. Bouarar, P. Coheur, M. N. Deeter et al., An examination of the long-term CO records from MOPITT and IASI: comparison of retrieval methodology, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol.8, issue.10, pp.4313-4328, 2015.
DOI : 10.5194/amt-8-4313-2015

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01145299

L. Giglio, G. R. Van-der-werf, J. T. Randerson, G. J. Collatz, and P. Kasibhatla, Global estimation of burned area using MODIS active fire observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.65194, issue.10, pp.957-974, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00295869

J. G. Goode, R. J. Yokelson, D. E. Ward, R. A. Susott, R. E. Babbitt et al., Measurement of excess O 3, Alaskan biomass burning plumes by airborne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (AFTIR), pp.147-166, 1997.

P. V. Hobbs, P. Sinha, R. J. Yokelson, T. J. Christian, D. R. Blake et al., Evolution of gases and particles from a savanna fire in South Africa, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.108, issue.D2, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JD002322

D. Hurtmans, P. Coheur, C. Wespes, L. Clarisse, O. Scharf et al., FORLI radiative transfer and retrieval code for IASI, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol.113, issue.11, pp.1391-1408, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.02.036

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00699904

C. Ichoku and L. Ellison, Global top-down smoke-aerosol emissions estimation using satellite fire radiative power measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.14105194, pp.6643-6667, 2014.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-14-6643-2014

URL : https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-6643-2014

D. A. Jaffe and N. L. Wigder, Ozone production from wildfires: A critical review, Atmospheric Environment, vol.51, pp.1-10, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.11.063

C. O. Justice, L. Giglio, S. Korontzi, J. Owens, J. Morisette et al., The MODIS fire products, Proc. SPIE, pp.244-262, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00076-7

J. W. Kaiser, A. Heil, M. O. Andreae, A. Benedetti, N. Chubarova et al., Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power, Biogeosciences, vol.9, issue.1, pp.527-554, 2012.
DOI : 10.5194/bg-9-527-2012

T. Kerzenmacher, B. Dils, N. Kumps, T. Blumenstock, C. Clerbaux et al., Validation of IASI FORLI carbon monoxide retrievals using FTIR data from NDACC, Atmos. Meas. Tech, vol.5105194, pp.2751-2761, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00706233

S. Korontzi, D. E. Ward, R. A. Susott, R. J. Yokelson, C. O. Justice et al., Seasonal variation and ecosystem dependence of emission factors for selected trace gases and PM 2.5 for southern African savanna fires, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos, vol.108, p.4758, 2003.

B. Langmann, B. Duncan, C. Textor, J. Trentmann, and G. R. Van-der-werf, Vegetation fire emissions and their impact on air pollution and climate, Atmospheric Environment, vol.43, issue.1, pp.107-116, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.047

B. Lefer, R. Talbot, R. Harriss, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm et al., Enhancement of acidic gases in biomass burning impacted air masses over Canada, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.99, issue.D1, pp.1721-1737, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/93JD02256

J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale, Nature, vol.186, issue.115, pp.367-371, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.12.036

M. Luo, M. W. Shephard, K. E. Cady-pereira, D. K. Henze, L. Zhu et al., Satellite observations of tropospheric ammonia and carbon monoxide: Global distributions, regional correlations and comparisons to model simulations, Atmospheric Environment, vol.106, pp.262-277, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.007

A. K. Mebust and R. C. Cohen, emissions from fires in African woody savannas, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.11, issue.7, pp.1451-1455, 2013.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-11-6787-2011

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/grl.50343/pdf

A. K. Mebust and R. C. Cohen, Space-based observations of fire NO x emission coefficients: a global biome-scale comparison, Atmos . Chem. Phys, vol.14105194, pp.2509-2524, 2014.

C. P. Meyer, G. D. Cook, F. Reisen, T. E. Smith, M. Tattaris et al., Direct measurements of the seasonality of emission factors from savanna fires in northern Australia, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.11, issue.1, pp.2156-2202, 2012.
DOI : 10.5194/acpd-11-3529-2011

O. Pechony, D. T. Shindell, and G. Faluvegi, Direct top-down estimates of biomass burning CO emissions using TES and MOPITT versus bottom-up GFED inventory, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.8, issue.D9, pp.8054-8066, 2013.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-8-6117-2008

M. Pommier, K. S. Law, C. Clerbaux, S. Turquety, D. Hurtmans et al., IASI carbon monoxide validation over the Arctic during POLARCAT spring and summer campaigns, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.10, issue.21, pp.10655-10678, 2010.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-10-10655-2010

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00491181

M. Pommier, C. Clerbaux, and P. Coheur, Determination of enhancement ratios of HCOOH relative to CO in biomass burning plumes by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.17, issue.18, pp.11089-11105, 2017.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JD002322

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01479316

R. Honi, Y. Clarisse, L. Clerbaux, C. Hurtmans, D. Duflot et al., Exceptional emissions of NH<sub>3</sub> and HCOOH in the 2010 Russian wildfires, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.13, issue.8, pp.4171-4181, 2013.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-13-4171-2013

S. F. Schreier, A. Richter, D. Schepaschenko, A. Shvidenko, A. Hilboll et al., Differences in satellite-derived NO x emission factors between Eurasian and North American boreal forest fires, Atmospheric Environment, vol.121, pp.55-65, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.071

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.071

S. F. Schreier, A. Richter, J. W. Kaiser, and J. P. Burrows, The empirical relationship between satellite-derived tropospheric NO<sub>2</sub> and fire radiative power and possible implications for fire emission rates of NO<sub>x</sub>, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.14, issue.5, pp.2447-2466, 2014.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-14-2447-2014

M. W. Shephard, K. E. Cady-pereira, M. Luo, D. K. Henze, R. W. Pinder et al., TES ammonia retrieval strategy and global observations of the spatial and seasonal variability of ammonia, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.115194, issue.10, pp.10743-10763, 2011.

P. Sinha, P. Hobbs, R. J. Yokelson, I. Bertschi, D. Blake et al., Emissions of trace gases and particles from savanna fires in southern Africa, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.108, issue.D13, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JD002322

T. E. Smith, C. Paton-walsh, C. P. Meyer, G. D. Cook, S. W. Maier et al., New emission factors for Australian vegetation fires measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ? Part 2: Australian tropical savanna fires, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.145194, issue.10, pp.11335-11352, 2014.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-14-11335-2014

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-11335-2014

M. Sutton, O. Oenema, J. Erisman, J. Leip, H. Van-grinsven et al., Too much of a good thing, Nature, vol.28, issue.7342, pp.472-159, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.03.009

P. Valks, G. Pinardi, A. Richter, J. Lambert, N. Hao et al., Operational total and tropospheric NO<sub>2</sub> column retrieval for GOME-2, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol.4, issue.7, pp.1491-1514, 1491.
DOI : 10.5194/amt-4-1491-2011

M. Van-damme, L. Clarisse, C. L. Heald, D. Hurtmans, Y. Ngadi et al., Global distributions, time series and error characterization of atmospheric ammonia (NH 3 ) from IASI satellite observations, Atmos . Chem. Phys, vol.145194, issue.10, pp.2905-2922, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00862486

M. Van-damme, L. Clarisse, E. Dammers, X. Liu, J. B. Nowak et al., Towards validation of ammonia (NH<sub>3</sub>) measurements from the IASI satellite, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol.8, issue.3, pp.1575-1591, 1575.
DOI : 10.5194/amt-8-1575-2015

M. Van-damme, S. Whitburn, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, D. Hurtmans et al., Version 2 of the IASI NH 3 neural network retrieval algorithm; near-real time and reanalysed datasets Continental-scale partitioning of fire emissions during the, Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires Leeuwen, T. T. and van der Werf, G. R.: Spatial and temporal variability in the ratio of trace gases emitted from biomass burning, pp.73-76, 1997.

S. Whitburn, Dynamic biomass burning emission factors and their impact on atmospheric CO mixing ratios, ER NH J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos, vol.3, issue.118, pp.6797-6815, 2013.

J. X. Warner, R. R. Dickerson, Z. Wei, L. L. Strow, Y. Wang et al., Increased atmospheric ammonia over the world's major agricultural areas detected from space, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.16, issue.14, pp.2875-2884, 2017.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-16-5467-2016

S. Whitburn, M. Van-damme, J. Kaiser, G. Van-der-werf, S. Turquety et al., Ammonia emissions in tropical biomass burning regions: Comparison between satellite-derived emissions and bottom-up fire inventories, Atmospheric Environment, vol.121, pp.42-54, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.03.015

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01245346

S. Whitburn, M. Van-damme, L. Clarisse, S. Turquety, C. Clerbaux et al., Doubling of annual ammonia emissions from the peat fires in Indonesia during the 2015 El Ni??o, Doubling of annual ammonia emissions from the peat fires in Indonesia during the 2015 El Niño, pp.11007-11014, 2016.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-11-7925-2011

S. Whitburn, M. Van-damme, L. Clarisse, S. Bauduin, C. Heald et al., retrieval algorithm, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.321, issue.6069, pp.6581-6599, 2016.
DOI : 10.1038/321503a0

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01306806

M. J. Wooster, P. H. Freeborn, S. Archibald, C. Oppenheimer, G. J. Roberts et al., Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.115194, issue.10, pp.11591-11615, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00707112

R. J. Yokelson, I. T. Bertschi, T. J. Christian, P. V. Hobbs, D. E. Ward et al., Trace gas measurements in nascent, aged, and cloud-processed smoke from African savanna fires by airborne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (AFTIR), Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.104, issue.D13, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JD900817

R. J. Yokelson, I. R. Burling, S. P. Urbanski, E. L. Atlas, K. Adachi et al., Trace gas and particle emissions from open biomass burning in Mexico, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.115194, issue.10, pp.6787-6808, 2011.
DOI : 10.5194/acpd-11-7321-2011