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Pyrenean hyper-extension : breaking, thinning, or stretching of the crust ?A view from the central north-Pyrenean zone

Abstract : The geology of the North Pyrenean Zone in the central Pyrenees allows for the observation in the field of theentire section of the Pyrenean rift, from the mantle to the crust and the Mesozoic cover (pre, syn and post rift).The good knowledge we have of the pre-Alpine history of the Pyrenees allows us to properly constrain the Alpinegeological evolution of the pre-Triassic rocks which record both Variscan and Alpine orogenic cycles.The mantle outcrop as kilometric to centimetric fragments of peridotite dispersed within a carbonate metamorphicbreccia. The study of peridotite serpentinisation shows several events of low-temperature serpentinisation, incontact with seawater. In some locallities, we can observe a mixture of fragments of variously serpentinizedperidotites. This suggests a tectonic context where fragments of peridotites from different structural levels weresampled more or less synchronously.The granulitic basement is characterized by a Variscan syndeformational HT event (300-280 Ma). So farwe have not found any trace of a Cretaceous HT event (> 500C). On the other hand, the basement is affectedby a regional metasomatism that began during the Jurassic and became more spatially focused with time until itwas restricted to the Pyrenean rift during the Aptien, Albian and Cenomanian. The talc-chlorite metasomatism(120-95 Ma) shows an evolution from a static toward a syn-deformation hydrothermal event, under a more or lessnormal geothermal gradient. Extensional deformation is recorded by the reworking of several inherited low-angleVariscan tectonic contacts, but also by dispersed high-angle extensional shear zones formed under greenshistconditions.The metamorphic Mesozoic cover of the basement massifs, which constitute the so-called Internal MetamorphicZone, is an allochtonous unit made of lenses of Mesozoic rocks enclosed into the breccia, whichlocally contains peridotite and basement clasts. The Mesozoic metamorphic carbonates show a first phase ofsyn-metamorphic (450-600C, P < 2 kb) ductile deformation, and subsequent phases of folding and fracturing.The datation of neoformed minerals give a 108-85 Ma time span for the metamorphism. We interpret this brecciaas an abandonment breccia which marks the emergence of the main detachment. The basal contact of the Mesozoiccover has a complex 3D geometry traced by Triassic evaporites. It corresponds to a major pre- and synorogenicpolyphased tectonic contact.All these data show a geometrically complex hyper-extended rift where the crust was not stretched under ahigh geothermal gradient but thinned by the tectonic extraction of relatively thin lenses and perhaps cut by highangle low-grade shear zones. The 3D geometry, as well as the strain records and the breccia lithologies stronglysuggest a non-cylindricity for the exhumation process, probably within a transtentional system
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https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01510371
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 19, 2017 - 2:05:19 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 17, 2021 - 12:32:04 PM

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  • HAL Id : insu-01510371, version 1

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Michel de Saint Blanquat, Flora Bajolet, Philippe Boulvais, Alexandre Boutin, Camille Clerc, et al.. Pyrenean hyper-extension : breaking, thinning, or stretching of the crust ?A view from the central north-Pyrenean zone. European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2017, European Geosciences Union, Apr 2017, Vienne, Austria. pp.EGU2017-8934-1. ⟨insu-01510371⟩

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