W. Allan, H. Struthers, and D. C. Lowe, Methane carbon isotope effects caused by atomic chlorine in the marine boundary layer: Global model results compared with Southern Hemisphere measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.110, issue.19, pp.10-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JD007369

H. Akiyoshi, Development of a global 1-D chemically radiatively coupled model and an introduction to the development of a chemically coupled General Circulation Model, CGER's Supercomputer Monograph Report, Center for Global Environmental Reserch, National Institute for Environmental Studies, vol.4, p.69, 1997.

H. Akiyoshi, Modeling of Chemistry and Chemistry-radiation Coupling Processes for the Middle Atmosphere and a Numerical Experiment on CO<sub>2</sub> Doubling with a 1-D Coupled Model, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, vol.78, issue.5, pp.563-584, 2000.
DOI : 10.2151/jmsj1965.78.5_563

H. Akiyoshi, L. B. Zhou, Y. Yamashita, K. Sakamoto, M. Yoshiki et al., A CCM simulation of the breakup of the Antarctic polar vortex in the years 1980?2004 under the CCMVal scenarios, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.102, issue.D20, p.310310, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2007JD009261

H. Akiyoshi, T. Nakamura, T. Miyasaka, M. Shiotani, and M. Suzuki, A nudged chemistry-climate model simulation of chemical constituent distribution at northern high-latitude stratosphere observed by SMILES and MLS during the 2009/2010 stratospheric sudden warming, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.21, issue.23, pp.1361-138010, 2016.
DOI : 10.1029/94GL01082

V. Aquila, L. D. Oman, R. S. Stolarski, P. R. Colarco, and P. A. Newman, Dispersion of the volcanic sulfate cloud from a Mount Pinatubo-like eruption, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.100, issue.D4, pp.621610-1029, 2012.
DOI : 10.1029/94JD03325

A. Arakawa and W. H. Schubert, Interaction of a Cumulus Cloud Ensemble with the Large-Scale Environment, Part I, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.31, issue.3, pp.671-701, 1974.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<0674:IOACCE>2.0.CO;2

F. Arfeuille, B. P. Luo, P. Heckendorn, D. Weisenstein, J. X. Sheng et al., Modeling the stratospheric warming following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption: uncertainties in aerosol extinctions, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.135194, pp.11221-1123410, 2013.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson et al., Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I ? gas phase reactions of O x , HO x , NO x and SO x species, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.45194, pp.1461-173810, 1461.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson et al., Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II &ndash; gas phase reactions of organic species, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.6, issue.11, pp.3625-405510, 2006.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-6-3625-2006

J. Austin, L. W. Horowitz, M. D. Schwarzkopf, R. J. Wilson, and H. Levy, Stratospheric Ozone and Temperature Simulated from the Preindustrial Era to the Present Day, Journal of Climate, vol.26, issue.11, pp.3528-3543, 2013.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00162.1

J. T. Bacmeister, M. J. Suarez, and F. R. Robertson, Rain Reevaporation, Boundary Layer?Convection Interactions, and Pacific Rainfall Patterns in an AGCM, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.63, issue.12, pp.3383-3403, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/JAS3791.1

A. J. Baumgaertner, P. Jöckel, and C. Brühl, Energetic particle precipitation in ECHAM5/MESSy1 ? Part 1: Downward transport of upper atmospheric NO x produced by low energy electrons, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.95194, pp.2729-274010, 2009.

P. Bechtold, E. Bazile, F. Guichard, P. Mascart, R. et al., A mass-flux convection scheme for regional and global models, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.43, issue.573, pp.869-886, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712757309

E. M. Bednarz, A. C. Maycock, N. L. Abraham, P. Braesicke, O. Dessens et al., Future Arctic ozone recovery: the importance of chemistry and dynamics, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.165194, pp.12159-1217610, 2016.

N. Bellouin, J. Rae, A. Jones, C. Johnson, J. Haywood et al., Aerosol forcing in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulations by HadGEM2-ES and the role of ammonium nitrate, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.111, issue.2, pp.2020610-1029, 2011.
DOI : 10.1029/2011JD016074

H. Bian and M. J. Prather, Fast-J2: Accurate simulation of stratospheric photolysis in global chemical models, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol.41, issue.3, pp.281-296, 2002.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1014980619462

P. Bougeault, A Simple Parameterization of the Large-Scale Effects of Cumulus Convection, Monthly Weather Review, vol.113, issue.12, pp.2108-2121, 1985.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1985)113<2108:ASPOTL>2.0.CO;2

N. Butkovskaya, A. Kukui, and L. G. Bras, + NO Reaction as a Function of Pressure and Temperature in the Ranges of 72???600 Torr and 223???323 K, The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol.111, issue.37, pp.9047-905310, 2007.
DOI : 10.1021/jp074117m

C. Cagnazzo, E. Manzini, M. A. Giorgetta, P. M. Forster, and J. J. Morcrette, Impact of an improved shortwave radiation scheme in the MAECHAM5 General Circulation Model, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.7, issue.10, pp.2503-251510, 2007.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-7-2503-2007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00296225

K. S. Carslaw, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, and S. L. Clegg, Vapour pressures of H 2 SO 4, O solutions to low stratospheric temperatures, pp.247-250, 1995.

J. S. Chang, R. A. Brost, I. S. Isaksen, S. Madronich, P. Middleton et al., A three-dimensional Eulerian acid deposition model: Physical concepts and formulation, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.21, issue.62, pp.14681-14700, 1987.
DOI : 10.1029/JD092iD12p14681

M. Chin, P. Ginoux, S. Kinne, O. Torres, B. N. Holben et al., Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness from the GOCART Model and Comparisons with Satellite and Sun Photometer Measurements, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.59, issue.3, pp.461-483, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0461:TAOTFT>2.0.CO;2

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

M. P. Chipperfield, Multiannual simulations with a three-dimensional chemical transport model, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.261, issue.D1, pp.1781-1805, 1999.
DOI : 10.1126/science.261.5125.1130

M. P. Chipperfield, New version of the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT off-line chemical transport model: Intercomparison of stratospheric tracer experiments, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.48, issue.617, pp.1179-1203, 2006.
DOI : 10.1256/qj.05.51

M. P. Chipperfield, S. S. Dhomse, W. Feng, R. L. Mckenzie, G. Velders et al., Quantifying the ozone and UV benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol, Nature Comm, vol.6, pp.723310-1038, 2015.
DOI : 10.1038/ncomms8233

URL : http://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8233

M. Chou and M. Suarez, J: A solar radiation parameterization for atmospheric studies, NASA Technical Report Series on Global Monitoring and Data Assimilation, pp.15-40, 1999.

M. Chou, M. J. Suarez, C. Ho, M. M. Yan, L. et al., Parameterizations for Cloud Overlapping and Shortwave Single-Scattering Properties for Use in General Circulation and Cloud Ensemble Models, Journal of Climate, vol.11, issue.2, pp.202-214, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<0202:PFCOAS>2.0.CO;2

M. Chou, M. J. Suarez, X. Z. Liang, Y. , M. M. et al., A thermal infrared radiations parameterization for atmospheric studies, NASA Technical Report Series on Global Monitoring and Data Assimilation, pp.19-56, 2001.

S. M. Clegg and J. P. Abbatt, Oxidation of SO 2 by H 2 O 2 on ice surfaces at 228 K: a sink for SO 2 in ice clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.15194, pp.73-7810, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00295178

P. Colarco, D. Silva, A. Chin, M. Diehl, and T. , Online simulations of global aerosol distributions in the NASA GEOS-4 model and comparisons to satellite and ground-based aerosol optical depth, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.113, issue.9, pp.10-1029, 2010.
DOI : 10.1029/2009JD012820

W. J. Collins, N. Bellouin, M. Doutriaux-boucher, N. Gedney, P. Halloran et al., Development and evaluation of an Earth-System model ? HadGEM2, Geosci. Model Dev, vol.45194, pp.1051-107510, 1051.

W. J. Collins, J. Lamarque, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, V. Eyring et al., AerChemMIP: Quantifying the effects of chemistry and aerosols in CMIP6, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss, pp.10-5194, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01496211

D. B. Considine, A. R. Douglass, P. S. Connell, D. E. Kinnison, and D. A. And-rotman, A polar stratospheric cloud parameterization for the global modeling initiative three-dimensional model and its response to stratospheric aircraft, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.100, issue.D3, pp.3955-397310, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/94JD02744

J. M. Davis, P. V. Bhave, and K. M. Foley, Parameterization of N 2 O 5 reaction probabilities on the surface of particles containing ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.85194, pp.5295-531110, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00303176

M. Déqué, Frequency of precipitation and temperature extremes over France in an anthropogenic scenario: Model results and statistical correction according to observed values, Global and Planetary Change, vol.57, issue.1-2, pp.16-26, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.11.030

M. Deushi and K. Shibata, Development of a Meteorological Research Institute Chemistry-Climate Model version 2 for the Study of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Chemistry, Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics, vol.62, pp.1-46, 2011.
DOI : 10.2467/mripapers.62.1

S. Dhomse, M. P. Chipperfield, W. Feng, and J. D. Haigh, Solar response in tropical stratospheric ozone: a 3-D chemical transport model study using ERA reanalyses, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.115194, pp.12773-1278610, 2011.

S. S. Dhomse, M. P. Chipperfield, W. Feng, W. T. Ball, Y. C. Unruh et al., Stratospheric O3 changes during 2001?2010: the small role of solar flux variations in a chemical transport model, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.135194, pp.10113-1012310, 2013.

S. S. Dhomse, M. Chipperfield, W. Feng, R. Hossaini, G. W. Mann et al., Revisiting the hemispheric asymmetry in midlatitude ozone changes following the Mount Pinatubo eruption: A 3-D model study, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.21, issue.8, pp.1-1010, 2015.
DOI : 10.1029/93GL03302

S. Dietmüller, P. Jöckel, H. Tost, M. Kunze, C. Gellhorn et al., A new radiation infrastructure for the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy, based on version 2.51), Geosci. Model Dev, vol.95194, pp.2209-222210, 2016.

H. Douville, S. Planton, J. F. Royer, D. B. Stephenson, S. Tyteca et al., climate experiments, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.1, issue.213, pp.14841-14861, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1988)001<0367:SOSMTD>2.0.CO;2

H. Douville, Stratospheric polar vortex influence on Northern Hemisphere winter climate variability, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.15, issue.12, pp.10-1029, 2009.
DOI : 10.1029/2009GL039334

J. Dufresne, M. A. Foujols, S. Denvil, A. Caubel, O. Marti et al., Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5, and Vuichard, N.: Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5, pp.2123-2165, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s00382-012-1636-1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00794170

B. N. Duncan, S. E. Strahan, Y. Yoshida, S. D. Steenrod, and N. Livesey, Model study of the cross-tropopause transport of biomass burning pollution, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.75194, pp.3713-373610, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00302584

J. M. Edwards, A. J. Slingo, and . Roy, Studies with a flexible new radiation code. I: Choosing a configuration for a large-scale model, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.55, issue.531, pp.689-719, 1996.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712253107

T. A. Egorova, E. V. Rozanov, V. A. Zubov, K. , and I. L. , Model for investigating ozone trends (MEZON), Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys, vol.39, pp.277-292, 2003.

I. Ermolli, K. Matthes, T. Dudok-de-wit, N. A. Krivova, K. Tourpali et al., Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.135194, pp.3945-397710, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01259621

V. Eyring, J. M. Arblaster, I. Cionni, J. Sedlá?ek, J. Perlwitz et al., Long-term ozone changes and associated climate impacts in CMIP5 simulations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.11, issue.17, pp.5029-5060, 2013.
DOI : 10.1175/jcli-d-12-00236.1

O. Morgenstern, CCMI-1 model review
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01488608

J. Feichter, E. Kjellström, H. Rodhe, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld et al., Simulation of the tropospheric sulfur cycle in a global climate model, Atmospheric Environment, vol.30, issue.10-11, pp.1693-1707, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/1352-2310(95)00394-0

W. Feng, M. P. Chipperfield, S. Dhomse, B. M. Monge-sanz, X. Yang et al., Evaluation of cloud convection and tracer transport in a three-dimensional chemical transport model, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.115194, pp.5783-580310, 2011.

Y. Fouquart and B. Bonnel, Computations of solar heating of the Earth' atmosphere: A new parameterization, Beitr. Phys. Atmos, vol.53, pp.35-62, 1980.

R. R. Garcia and B. A. Boville, ?Downward Control? of the Mean Meridional Circulation and Temperature Distribution of the Polar Winter Stratosphere, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.51, issue.15, pp.2238-2245, 1994.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<2238:COTMMC>2.0.CO;2

R. R. Garcia, A. K. Smith, D. E. Kinnison, Á. De-la-cámara, M. et al., Modification of the Gravity Wave Parameterization in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model: Motivation and Results, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.74, issue.1, 2016.
DOI : 10.1175/JAS-D-16-0104.1

J. F. Geleyn and A. Hollingsworth, An economical analytical method for the computation of the interaction between scattering and line absorption of radiation, Contrib. Atmos. Phys, vol.52, pp.1-16, 1979.

M. A. Giorgetta, Der Einfluss der quasi-zweijährigen Oszillation: Modellrechnungen mit ECHAM4, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 1996.

M. A. Giorgetta and L. Bengtsson, Potential role of the quasi-biennial oscillation in the stratosphere-troposphere exchange as found in water vapor in general circulation model experiments, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.46, issue.D6, pp.6003-601910, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<2699:GQICAO>2.0.CO;2

F. Giorgi and W. L. Chameides, Rainout lifetimes of highly soluble aerosols and gases as inferred from simulations with a general circulation model, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.89, issue.D13, pp.14367-14376, 1986.
DOI : 10.1029/JD091iD13p14367

J. Golaz, M. Salzmann, L. J. Donner, L. W. Horowitz, Y. Ming et al., Sensitivity of the Aerosol Indirect Effect to Subgrid Variability in the Cloud Parameterization of the GFDL Atmosphere General Circulation Model AM3, Journal of Climate, vol.24, issue.13, pp.3145-3160, 2011.
DOI : 10.1175/2010JCLI3945.1

J. Golaz, L. W. Horowitz, I. Levy, and H. , Cloud tuning in a coupled climate model: Impact on 20th century warming, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.22, issue.11, pp.2246-2251, 2013.
DOI : 10.1175/2009JCLI3049.1

C. Granier, B. Bessagnet, T. Bond, A. D-'angiola, H. D. Van-der-gon et al., Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980???2010 period, Climatic Change, vol.9, issue.4, pp.163-19010, 1980.
DOI : 10.1007/s10584-011-0154-1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00637460

V. Grewe, D. Brunner, M. Dameris, J. L. Grenfell, R. Hein et al., Origin and variability of upper tropospheric nitrogen oxides and ozone at northern mid-latitudes, Atmospheric Environment, vol.35, issue.20, pp.3421-3433, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00134-0

S. M. Griffies, M. Winton, L. J. Donner, L. W. Horowitz, S. M. Downes et al., The GFDL CM3 Coupled Climate Model: Characteristics of the Ocean and Sea Ice Simulations, Journal of Climate, vol.24, issue.13, pp.3520-354410, 1175.
DOI : 10.1175/2011JCLI3964.1

A. Guenther, B. Baugh, G. Brasseur, J. Greenberg, P. Harley et al., Isoprene emission estimates and uncertainties for the central African EXPRESSO study domain, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.15, issue.D23, pp.30625-3063910, 1999.
DOI : 10.1890/1051-0761(1999)009[1132:WEOIEC]2.0.CO;2

A. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron et al., A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.93, issue.3, pp.8873-889210, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/JD093iD02p01407

J. Guth, B. Josse, V. Marécal, M. Joly, and P. Hamer, First implementation of secondary inorganic aerosols in the MOCAGE version R2.15.0 chemistry transport model, Geoscientific Model Development, vol.9, issue.1, pp.137-16010, 2016.
DOI : 10.5194/gmd-9-137-2016

S. C. Hardiman, N. Butchart, F. M. O-'connor, R. , and S. T. , The Met Office HadGEM3-ES Chemistry-Climate Model: Evaluation of stratospheric dynamics and its impact on ozone, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss, pp.10-5194, 2016.

H. Hasumi and S. Emori, K-1 coupled GCM (MIROC) description , available at, 2004.

D. A. Hauglustaine, C. Granier, G. Brasseur, and G. Megie, The importance of atmospheric chemistry in the calculation of radiative forcing on the climate system, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.20, issue.1, pp.1173-1186, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/93GL01318

H. T. Hewitt, D. Copsey, I. D. Culverwell, C. M. Harris, R. S. Hill et al., Design and implementation of the infrastructure of HadGEM3: the nextgeneration Met Office climate modelling system, Geosci. Model Dev, vol.45194, pp.223-25310, 2011.

C. O. Hines, Doppler-spread parameterization of gravity-wave momentum deposition in the middle atmosphere. Part 2: Broad and quasi monochromatic spectra, and implementation, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol.59, issue.4, pp.387-400, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S1364-6826(96)00080-6

A. Holtslag and B. Boville, Local Versus Nonlocal Boundary-Layer Diffusion in a Global Climate Model, Journal of Climate, vol.6, issue.10, pp.1825-1842, 1993.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1825:LVNBLD>2.0.CO;2

L. W. Horowitz, A. M. Fiore, G. P. Milly, R. C. Cohen, A. Perring et al., Observational constraints on the chemistry of isoprene nitrates over the eastern United States, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.112, issue.D2, pp.12-0810, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JD007747

F. Hourdin, I. Musat, S. Bony, P. Braconnot, F. Codron et al., The LMDZ4 general circulation model: climate performance and sensitivity to parametrized physics with emphasis on tropical convection, Climate Dynamics, vol.19, issue.16, pp.787-813, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00382-006-0158-0

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00113202

E. C. Hunke and W. H. Lipscombe, CICE: the Los Alamos sea ice model documentation and software user's manual, 2008.

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen et al., The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC: Climate Change 2013, 1535.

K. Imai, N. Manago, C. Mitsuda, Y. Naito, E. Nishimoto et al., Validation of ozone data from the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), Validation of ozone data from the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), pp.5750-5769, 2013.
DOI : 10.1029/2009JA014898

T. Iwasaki, S. Yamada, and K. Tada, A Parameterization Scheme of Orographic Gravity Wave Drag with Two Different Vertical Partitionings, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, vol.67, issue.1, pp.11-41, 1989.
DOI : 10.2151/jmsj1965.67.1_11

C. Jackman, D. Marsh, F. Vitt, R. Garcia, C. Randall et al., Long-term middle atmosphere influence of very large solar proton events, J. Geophys. Res, vol.114, pp.10-1029, 2009.

P. Jöckel, R. Sander, A. Kerkweg, H. Tost, and J. Lelieveld, Technical Note: The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) ? a new approach towards Earth System Modeling, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.55194, pp.433-44410, 2005.

P. Jöckel, H. Tost, A. Pozzer, C. Brühl, J. Buchholz et al., The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.65194, pp.5067-510410, 2006.

J. G. John, A. M. Fiore, V. Naik, L. W. Horowitz, and J. P. Dunne, Climate versus emission drivers of methane lifetime against loss by tropospheric OH from 1860???2100, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.12, issue.24, pp.12021-1203610, 2012.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-12-12021-2012

A. I. Jonsson, J. De-grandpré, V. I. Fomichev, J. C. Mcconnell, and S. R. Beagley, Doubled CO 2 -induced cooling in the middle atmosphere: Photochemical analysis of the ozone radiative feedback, J. Geophys. Res, pp.10-1029, 2004.

B. Josse, P. Simon, and V. Peuch, Radon global simulations with the multiscale chemistry and transport model MOCAGE, Tellus B, vol.64, issue.4, pp.339-356, 2004.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<0102:TDSLTW>2.0.CO;2

B. Kärcher and U. Lohmann, A parameterization of cirrus cloud formation: Homogeneous freezing of supercooled aerosols, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.125, issue.D2, pp.10-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JD000194

A. Kerkweg, J. Buchholz, L. Ganzeveld, A. Pozzer, H. Tost et al., Technical Note: An implementation of the dry removal processes DRY DEPosition and SEDImentation in the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy), Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.65194, pp.4617-463210, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00302014

A. Kerkweg, R. Sander, H. Tost, and P. Jöckel, Technical note: Implementation of prescribed (OFFLEM), calculated (ON- LEM), and pseudo-emissions (TNUDGE) of chemical species in the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy), Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.65194, pp.3603-360910, 2006.

A. J. Kettle, M. O. Andreae, D. Amouroux, T. W. Andreae, T. S. Bates et al., A global database of sea surface dimethylsulfide (DMS) measurements and a procedure to predict sea surface DMS as a function of latitude, longitude, and month, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.101, issue.2, pp.399-44410, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/95JD03356

S. M. Kreidenweis, C. J. Walcek, G. Feingold, W. M. Gong, M. Z. Jacobson et al., Modification of aerosol mass and size distribution due to aqueous-phase SO 2 oxidation in clouds: Comparisons of several models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos, vol.108, p.421310, 1029.

O. Kirner, R. Ruhnke, J. Buchholz-dietsch, P. Jöckel, C. Brühl et al., Simulation of polar stratospheric clouds in the chemistry-climate-model EMAC via the submodel PSC, Geosci. Model Dev, pp.169-18210, 2011.

N. Krivova, S. Solanki, F. , and L. , Reconstruction of solar UV irradiance in cycle?23, Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol.452, issue.2, pp.631-639, 2006.
DOI : 10.1051/0004-6361:20064809

M. Kunze, M. Godolt, U. Langematz, J. Grenfell, A. Hamann-reinus et al., Investigating the early Earth faint young Sun problem with a general circulation model, Planetary and Space Science, vol.98
DOI : 10.1016/j.pss.2013.09.011

R. D. Koster, M. J. Suarez, A. Ducharne, M. Stieglitz, and P. Kumar, A catchment-based approach to modeling land surface processes in a general circulation model: 1. Model structure, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.30, issue.D20, pp.24809-2482210, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/93WR03553

J. Kurokawa, H. Akiyoshi, . Nagashima, and H. Masunaga, Nagajima " Takahashi, and Nakane, H.: Effects of atmospheric sphericity on stratospheric chemistry and dynamics over Antarctica, J. Geophys . Res, pp.10-1029, 2005.

J. Lamarque, T. C. Bond, V. Eyring, C. Granier, A. Heil et al., CCMI-1 model review denne, J

J. R. Connell, V. Naik, K. Riahi, and D. P. Van-vuuren, Historical (1850?2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.7017-703910, 2010.

D. J. Lary and J. A. Pyle, Diffuse radiation, twilight, and photochemistry ? I, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol.7, issue.11, pp.373-392, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00057753

J. Lean, G. Rottman, J. Harder, and G. Kopp, SORCE contributions to new understanding of global change and solar variability, Solar Phys, pp.27-53, 2005.

F. Lefèvre, G. P. Brasseur, I. Folkins, A. K. Smith, and P. Simon, Chemistry of the 1991?1992 stratospheric winter: Three-dimensional model simulations, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.117, issue.92, pp.8183-819510, 1994.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<0102:TDSLTW>2.0.CO;2

F. Lefèvre, F. Figarol, K. S. Carslaw, and T. Peter, The 1997 Arctic Ozone depletion quantified from three-dimensional model simulations, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.22, issue.13, pp.2425-242810, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/97GL52830

I. Levy, H. Horowitz, L. W. Schwarzkopf, M. D. Ming, Y. Golaz et al., The roles of aerosol direct and indirect effects in past and future climate change, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.324, issue.3, pp.4521-4532, 2013.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00121.1

S. Lin, A ?Vertically Lagrangian? Finite-Volume Dynamical Core for Global Models, Monthly Weather Review, vol.132, issue.10, pp.2293-2307, 2004.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<2293:AVLFDC>2.0.CO;2

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

M. Lin, A. M. Fiore, L. W. Horowitz, O. R. Cooper, V. Naik et al., Transport of Asian ozone pollution into surface air over the western United States in spring, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.9, issue.D22, pp.0-0710, 1029.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-9-5131-2009

M. Lin, A. M. Fiore, O. R. Cooper, L. W. Horowitz, A. O. Langford et al., Springtime high surface ozone events over the western United States: Quantifying the role of stratospheric intrusions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.45, issue.37, pp.0-2210, 1029.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.07.054

M. Lin, L. W. Horowitz, S. J. Oltmans, A. M. Fiore, F. et al., Tropospheric ozone trends at Mauna Loa Observatory tied to decadal climate variability, Nature Geoscience, vol.116, issue.2, pp.136-14310, 1038.
DOI : 10.1038/ngeo2066

M. Lin, A. M. Fiore, L. W. Horowitz, A. O. Langford, S. J. Oltmans et al., Climate variability modulates western US ozone air quality in spring via deep stratospheric intrusions, Nature Communications, vol.108, p.7105, 2015.
DOI : 10.1038/ncomms8105

M. Lin, L. W. Horowitz, O. R. Cooper, D. Tarasick, S. Conley et al., Revisiting the evidence of increasing springtime ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere over western North America, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.9, issue.14, pp.8719-872810, 1002.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-9-5131-2009

S. Lin and R. B. Rood, Multidimensional Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian Transport Schemes, Monthly Weather Review, vol.124, issue.9, pp.2046-2070, 1996.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<2046:MFFSLT>2.0.CO;2

P. Liss and P. Slater, Flux of Gases across the Air-Sea Interface, Nature, vol.175, issue.5438, pp.181-184, 1974.
DOI : 10.1038/247181a0

J. Liu, S. Fan, L. W. Horowitz, I. Levy, and H. , Evaluation of factors controlling long-range transport of black carbon to the Arctic, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.32, issue.30, pp.10-1029, 2011.
DOI : 10.1029/2010JD015145

A. P. Lock, A. R. Brown, M. R. Bush, G. M. Martin, and R. N. Smith, A New Boundary Layer Mixing Scheme. Part I: Scheme Description and Single-Column Model Tests, Monthly Weather Review, vol.128, issue.9, pp.3187-3199, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<3187:ANBLMS>2.0.CO;2

U. Lohmann and E. Roeckner, Design and performance of a new cloud microphysics scheme developed for the ECHAM general circulation model, Climate Dynamics, vol.12, issue.8, pp.557-572, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00207939

F. Lott, Alleviation of Stationary Biases in a GCM through a Mountain Drag Parameterization Scheme and a Simple Representation of Mountain Lift Forces, Monthly Weather Review, vol.127, issue.5, pp.788-801, 1996.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<0788:AOSBIA>2.0.CO;2

F. Lott and L. Guez, A stochastic parameterization of the gravity waves due to convection and its impact on the equatorial stratosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.53, issue.D22, pp.8897-8909, 2013.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01089503

F. Lott, M. J. Miller, and Q. J. Roy, A new subgrid-scale orographic drag parametrization: Its formulation and testing, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.4, issue.537, pp.101-112, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712353704

F. Lott, L. Fairhead, F. Hourdin, and P. Levan, The stratospheric version of LMDz: dynamical climatologies, arctic oscillation, and impact on the surface climate, Climate Dynamics, vol.117, issue.D4, pp.851-868, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00382-005-0064-x

J. Louis, M. Tiedtke, and J. And-geleyn, A short history of the PBL parameterization at ECMWF, Proc. ECMWF Workshop on Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization, pp.25-27, 1981.

G. Madec, NEMO ocean engine, Institut Piere-Simon Laplace (IPSL), France, 2008.

S. Madronich and S. Flocke, The Role of Solar Radiation in Atmospheric Chemistry, pp.1-26, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-69044-3_1

E. Manzini, N. A. Mcfarlane, and C. Mclandress, Impact of the Doppler spread parameterization on the simulation of the middle atmosphere circulation using the MA/ECHAM4 general circulation model, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.46, issue.A, pp.25751-2576210, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<1779:ACMFSF>2.0.CO;2

E. Manzini, M. A. Giorgetta, M. Esch, L. Kornblueh, and E. Roeckner, The Influence of Sea Surface Temperatures on the Northern Winter Stratosphere: Ensemble Simulations with the MAECHAM5 Model, Journal of Climate, vol.19, issue.16, pp.3863-3881, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI3826.1

M. Marchand, P. Keckhut, S. Lefebvre, C. Claud, D. Cugnet et al., Dynamical amplification of the stratospheric solar response simulated with the Chemistry-Climate Model LMDz-Reprobus, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol.75, issue.76, pp.75-76, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.11.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00650612

C. Mari, D. J. Jacob, and P. Bechtold, Transport and scavenging of soluble gases in a deep convective cloud, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.98, issue.D17, pp.22255-2226710, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/93JD01865

D. Marsh, M. J. Mills, D. E. Kinnison, R. R. Garcia, J. Lamarque et al., Climate change from 1850, CESM1 (WACCM), J. Climate, pp.7372-7391, 2005.

O. Marti, P. Braconnot, J. Dufresne, J. Bellier, R. Benshila et al., Key features of the IPSL ocean atmosphere model and its sensitivity to atmospheric resolution, Climate Dynamics, vol.78, issue.11, pp.1-2610, 1007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00382-009-0640-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00498320

G. M. Martin, M. A. Ringer, V. D. Pope, A. Jones, C. Dearden et al., The Physical Properties of the Atmosphere in the New Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM1). Part I: Model Description and Global Climatology, Journal of Climate, vol.19, issue.7, pp.1274-1301, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI3636.1

P. Mascart, J. Noilhan, and H. Giordani, A modified parameterization of flux-profile relationships in the surface layer using different roughness length values for heat and momentum, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol.117, issue.4, pp.331-344, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00708998

J. D. Mccalpin, A Quantitative Analysis of the Dissipation Inherent in Semi-Lagrangian Advection, Monthly Weather Review, vol.116, issue.11, pp.2330-2336, 1988.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<2330:AQAOTD>2.0.CO;2

N. A. Mcfarlane, The Effect of Orographically Excited Gravity Wave Drag on the General Circulation of the Lower Stratosphere and Troposphere, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.44, issue.14, pp.1775-1800, 1987.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<1775:TEOOEG>2.0.CO;2

C. Mclandress, D. A. Plummer, and T. G. Shepherd, Technical Note: A simple procedure for removing temporal discontinuities in ERA-Interim upper stratospheric temperatures for use in nudged chemistry-climate model simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.145194, pp.1547-155510, 1547.

G. A. Meehl, W. M. Washington, J. M. Arblaster, A. Hu, H. Teng et al., Climate Change Projections in CESM1(CAM5) Compared to CCSM4, Journal of Climate, vol.26, issue.17, pp.6287-6308, 2013.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00572.1

M. Meinshausen, S. J. Smith, K. Calvin, J. S. Daniel, M. L. Kainuma et al., The RCP greenhouse gas concentrations and their extensions from 1765 to 2300, Climatic Change, vol.41, issue.7, pp.213-24110, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s10584-011-0156-z

M. Michou, D. Saint-martin, H. Teyssèdre, A. Alias, F. Karcher et al., A new version of the CNRM Chemistry- Climate Model, CNRM-CCM: description and improvements from the CCMVal-2 simulations, Geosci. Model Dev, vol.45194, pp.873-90010, 2011.

E. J. Mlawer, S. J. Taubman, P. D. Brown, M. J. Iacono, and S. A. Clough, Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.52, issue.D14, pp.16663-16682, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00864037

A. Molod, L. Takacs, M. Suarez, J. Bacmeister, I. Song et al., The GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model: Mean Climate and Development from MERRA to Fortuna , NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation, 2012.

A. Molod, L. Takacs, M. Suarez, and J. Bacmeister, Development of the GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model: evolution from MERRA to MERRA2, Geosci. Model Dev, vol.85194, pp.1339-135610, 1339.

S. A. Monks, S. R. Arnold, and M. P. Chipperfield, Evidence for El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence on Arctic CO interannual variability through biomass burning emissions, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.97, issue.5802, p.10, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/92JD00622

S. Moorthi and M. J. Suarez, Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert. A Parameterization of Moist Convection for General Circulation Models, Monthly Weather Review, vol.120, issue.6, pp.978-1002, 1992.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1992)120<0978:RASAPO>2.0.CO;2

J. Morcrette, Impact of Changes to the Radiation Transfer Parameterizations Plus Cloud Optical. Properties in the ECMWF Model, Monthly Weather Review, vol.118, issue.4, pp.847-873, 1990.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<0847:IOCTTR>2.0.CO;2

J. Morcrette, Radiation and cloud radiative properties in the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts forecasting system, J. Geophys. Res, vol.95, pp.9121-9132, 1991.

J. Morcrette, E. J. Mlawer, M. J. Iacono, and S. A. Clough, Impact of the radiation-transfer scheme RRTM in the ECMWF forecasting system, ECMWF Newsletter, issue.91, 2001.

O. Morgenstern, P. Braesicke, F. M. O-'connor, A. C. Bushell, C. E. Johnson et al., Evaluation of the new UKCA climate-composition model ? Part 1: The stratosphere , Geosci. Model Dev, pp.43-5710, 2009.

O. Morgenstern, M. A. Giorgetta, K. Shibata, V. Eyring, D. W. Waugh et al., Review of the formulation of present-generation chemistry-climate models and associated forcings, J. Geophys. Res, vol.115, pp.0-0210, 1029.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00509699

O. Morgenstern, G. Zeng, N. L. Abraham, P. J. Telford, P. Braesicke et al., Impacts of climate change, ozone recovery, and increasing methane on surface ozone and the tropospheric oxidizing capacity, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.37, issue.2, pp.1028-104110, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2010GL042812

O. Morgenstern, G. Zeng, S. M. Dean, M. Joshi, N. L. Abraham et al., Direct and ozone-mediated forcing of the Southern Annular Mode by greenhouse gases, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.26, issue.7, pp.9050-905710, 2014.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00204.1

O. Morgenstern, CCMI-1 model review
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01488608

J. Müller and G. Brasseur, IMAGES: A three-dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.23, issue.B, pp.16445-16490, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-6981(89)90094-2

V. Naik, L. W. Horowitz, A. M. Fiore, P. Ginoux, J. Q. Mao et al., Impact of preindustrial to presentday changes in short-lived pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing, J. Geophys. Res, vol.118, pp.8086-8110, 2013.

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, Matrix formulations for the transfer of solar radiation in a plane-parallel scattering atmosphere, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol.35, issue.1, pp.13-21, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-4073(86)90088-9

T. Nakajima, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Tsuhima, A. Numaguti, and T. Kimura, Modeling of the radiative process in an atmospheric general circulation model, Applied Optics, vol.39, issue.27, pp.4869-4878, 2000.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.39.004869

R. B. Neale, J. Richter, S. Park, P. H. Lauritzen, S. J. Vavrus et al., The Mean Climate of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in Forced SST and Fully Coupled Experiments, Journal of Climate, vol.26, issue.14, pp.5150-5168, 2013.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00236.1

J. Noilhan and S. Planton, A Simple Parameterization of Land Surface Processes for Meteorological Models, Monthly Weather Review, vol.117, issue.3, pp.536-549, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<0536:ASPOLS>2.0.CO;2

Y. Noh and H. Kim, Simulations of temperature and turbulence structure of the oceanic boundary layer with the improved near-surface process, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.21, issue.C7, pp.15621-15634, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(1991)021<0709:VEOTWS>2.0.CO;2

T. E. Nordeng, Extended versions of the convection parametrization scheme at ECMWF and their impact on the mean and transient activity of the model in the tropics, ECMWF Tech. Memo, vol.206, 1994.

J. L. Neu, M. J. Prather, and J. E. Penner, Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over fractional cloud cover, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.55, issue.3, pp.10-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JD008007

A. Numaguti, M. Takahashi, T. Nakajima, and A. Sumi, Description of CCSR/NIES Atmospheric General Circulation Model, CGER's Supercomputer Monograph Report, Center for Global Environmental Reserch, National Institute for Environmental Studies, vol.3, p.48, 1997.

O. Connor, F. M. Johnson, C. E. Morgenstern, O. Abraham, N. L. Braesicke et al., Evaluation of the new UKCA climatecomposition model ? Part 2: The Troposphere, Geosci. Model Dev, vol.75194, pp.41-9110, 2014.

L. D. Oman, J. R. Ziemke, A. R. Douglass, D. W. Waugh, C. Lang et al., The response of tropical tropospheric ozone to ENSO, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.10, issue.3, pp.1370610-1029, 2011.
DOI : 10.1029/2011GL047865

L. D. Oman, A. R. Douglass, J. R. Ziemke, J. M. Rodriguez, D. W. Waugh et al., The ozone response to ENSO in Aura satellite measurements and a chemistry-climate simulation, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.12, issue.D12, pp.965-97610, 2013.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-12-5737-2012

D. Pan and D. A. Randall, A cumulus parameterization with a prognostic closure, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.30, issue.547, pp.949-981, 1998.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712454714

G. Pitari, V. Aquila, B. Kravitz, A. Robock, S. Watanabe et al., Stratospheric ozone response to sulfate geoengineering: Results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.13, issue.5880, pp.2629-265310, 2014.
DOI : 10.1029/2011JD015749

G. Pitari, D. Iachetti, D. Genova, G. De-luca, N. Søvde et al., Impact of Coupled NOx/Aerosol Aircraft Emissions on Ozone Photochemistry and Radiative Forcing, Atmosphere, vol.45, issue.6, pp.751-782, 2015.
DOI : 10.1002/grl.50161

G. Pitari, D. Genova, G. , D. Luca, and N. , A modelling study of the impact of on-road diesel emissions on Arctic black carbon and solar radiation transfer, Atmosphere, pp.318-340, 2015.

G. Pitari, D. Genova, G. Coppari, E. De-luca, N. et al., Desert dust transported over Europe: Lidar observations and model evaluation of the radiative impact, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.110, issue.35, pp.2881-289810, 2015.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-12-2491-2012

G. Pitari, D. Genova, G. Mancini, E. Visioni, D. Gandolfi et al., Stratospheric Aerosols from Major Volcanic Eruptions: A Composition-Climate Model Study of the Aerosol Cloud Dispersal and e-folding Time, Atmosphere, vol.40, issue.6, 2016.
DOI : 10.1029/2005JD005776

G. Pitari, I. Cionni, D. Genova, G. Visioni, D. Gandolfi et al., Impact of stratospheric volcanic aerosols on ageof-air and transport of long-lived species, 2016.

G. Pitari, D. Visioni, E. Mancini, I. Cionni, D. Genova et al., Sulfate Aerosols from Non-Explosive Volcanoes: Chemical-Radiative Effects in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere, Atmosphere, vol.115, issue.7, 2016.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<0438:CDCSOA>2.0.CO;2

U. Pöschl, R. Von-kuhlmann, N. Poisson, C. , and P. J. , Development and intercomparison of condensed isoprene oxidation mechanisms for global atmospheric modeling, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol.37, issue.1, pp.29-52, 2000.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1006391009798

A. Pozzer, P. Jöckel, R. Sander, J. Williams, L. Ganzeveld et al., Technical Note: The MESSy-submodel AIRSEA calculating the air-sea exchange of chemical species, Atmos . Chem. Phys, vol.65194, issue.6, pp.5435-544410, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00302085

A. Pozzer, P. Jöckel, B. Kern, and H. Haak, The Atmosphere- Ocean General Circulation Model EMAC-MPIOM
DOI : 10.5194/gmd-4-771-2011

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-4-771-2011

M. Prather, Numerical advection by conservation of second-order moments, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.31, issue.D6, pp.6671-6681, 1986.
DOI : 10.1029/JD091iD06p06671

C. Price and D. Rind, A simple lightning parameterization for calculating global lightning distributions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.37, issue.D9, pp.9919-993310, 1992.
DOI : 10.1029/92JD00719

C. Price and D. Rind, Modeling Global Lightning Distributions in a General Circulation Model, 122<1930:MGLDIA>2.0.CO, 1930.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1994)122<1930:MGLDIA>2.0.CO;2

C. Price, J. Penner, and M. Prather, from lightning: 1. Global distribution based on lightning physics, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.79, issue.D5, pp.5929-594110, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/JC079i012p01761

A. Priestley, A Quasi-Conservative Version of the Semi-Lagrangian Advection Scheme, Monthly Weather Review, vol.121, issue.2
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<0621:AQCVOT>2.0.CO;2

W. M. Putman and S. Lin, Finite-volume transport on various cubed-sphere grids, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.227, issue.1, pp.55-78, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcp.2007.07.022

C. A. Randles, S. Kinne, G. Myhre, M. Schulz, P. Stier et al., Intercomparison of shortwave radiative transfer schemes in global aerosol modeling: results from the AeroCom Radiative Transfer Experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.135194, pp.2347-237910, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00788409

N. A. Rayner, D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L. V. Alexander et al., Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.220, issue.D18, p.440710, 1029.
DOI : 10.2307/2533983

L. E. Revell, F. Tummon, A. Stenke, T. Sukhodolov, A. Coulon et al., Drivers of the tropospheric ozone budget throughout the 21st century under the medium-high climate scenario RCP 6, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.155194, issue.0, pp.5887-590210, 2015.

J. Ricard and J. Royer, A statistical cloud scheme for use in a AGCM, Ann. Geophys, vol.11, pp.1095-1115, 1993.

E. Roeckner, G. Bäuml, L. Bonaventura, R. Brokopf, M. Esch et al., The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM 5, Part I: Model description, Max-Planck- Institut für Meteorologie, 2003.

K. Riahi, S. Rao, V. Krey, C. Cho, V. Chirkov et al., RCP 8.5?A scenario of comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions, Climatic Change, vol.1, issue.3, pp.10-1007, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s10584-011-0149-y

M. Righi, J. Hendricks, and R. Sausen, The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol: simulations for year 2000 emissions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.13, issue.19, pp.9939-997010, 2013.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-13-9939-2013

E. Roeckner, R. Brokopf, M. Esch, M. Giorgetta, S. Hagemann et al., Sensitivity of Simulated Climate to Horizontal and Vertical Resolution in the ECHAM5 Atmosphere Model, Journal of Climate, vol.19, issue.16, pp.3771-3791, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI3824.1

E. Rozanov, M. E. Schlesinger, V. Zubov, F. Yang, and N. G. Andronova, The UIUC three-dimensional stratospheric chemical transport model: Description and evaluation of the simulated source gases and ozone, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.31, issue.N4, pp.11755-11781, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<1335:HSFTDA>2.0.CO;2

E. Rozanov, M. Calisto, T. Egorova, T. Peter, and W. Schmutz, Influence of the Precipitating Energetic Particles on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate, Surveys in Geophysics, vol.115, issue.8, pp.483-501, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s10712-012-9192-0

S. P. Sander, J. Abbatt, J. R. Barker, J. B. Burkholder, R. R. Friedl et al., Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, pp.10-16, 2011.

R. Sander, P. Jöckel, O. Kirner, A. T. Kunert, J. Landgraf et al., The photolysis module JVAL-14, compatible with the MESSy standard, and the JVal PreProcessor (JVPP), Geosci. Model Dev, pp.2653-266210, 2014.

A. A. Scaife, N. Butchart, C. D. Warner, and R. Swinbank, Impact of a Spectral Gravity Wave Parameterization on the Stratosphere in the Met Office Unified Model, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.59, issue.9, pp.1473-1489, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<1473:IOASGW>2.0.CO;2

M. Schraner, E. Rozanov, C. Schnadt-poberaj, P. Kenzelmann, A. M. Fischer et al., Technical Note: Chemistry-climate model SOCOL: version 2.0 with improved transport and chemistry/microphysics schemes, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.85194, pp.5957-597410, 2008.
DOI : 10.5194/acpd-8-11103-2008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00304244

M. G. Schultz, A. Heil, J. J. Hoelzemann, A. Spessa, K. Thonicke et al., Global wildland fire emissions from, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy, vol.22, pp.200210-1029, 1960.
DOI : 10.1029/2007gb003031

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

J. F. Scinocca, N. A. Mcfarlane, M. Lazare, J. Li, and D. Plummer, Technical Note: The CCCma third generation AGCM and its extension into the middle atmosphere, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.8, issue.23, pp.7055-707410, 2008.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-8-7055-2008

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-7055-2008

T. Sekiya and K. Sudo, Role of meteorological variability in global tropospheric ozone during, J. Geophys. Res, vol.117, pp.10-1029, 1970.

T. Sekiya and K. Sudo, Roles of transport and chemistry processes in global ozone change on interannual and multidecadal time scales, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.10, issue.8, pp.4903-4921, 2014.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-10-3711-2010

K. Shibata, M. Deushi, T. T. Sekiyama, Y. , and H. , Development of an MRI Chemical Transport Model for the Study of Stratospheric Chemistry, Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics, vol.55, issue.3/4, pp.75-119, 2005.
DOI : 10.2467/mripapers.55.75

S. K. Solanki and N. A. Krivova, Can solar variability explain global warming since 1970?, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol.427, issue.A11, pp.10-1029, 1200.
DOI : 10.1086/187377

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

S. Solomon, D. E. Kinnison, J. Bandoro, and R. Garcia, Simulation of polar ozone depletion: An update, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.13, issue.D6, pp.7958-7974, 2015.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-13-3909-2013

O. A. Søvde, S. Matthes, A. Skowron, D. Iachetti, L. Lim et al., Aircraft emission mitigation by changing route altitude: A multi-model estimate of aircraft NOx emission impact on O3 photochemistry, Atmospheric Environment, vol.95, pp.468-479, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.06.049

O. Morgenstern, CCMI-1 model review SPARC: SPARC Report on the Lifetimes of Stratospheric Ozone- Depleting Substances, Their Replacements, and Related Species, SPARC Report No, vol.6, p.15, 2013.

A. Stenke, M. Schraner, E. Rozanov, T. Egorova, B. Luo et al., The SOCOL version 3.0 chemistry-climate model: description, evaluation, and implications from an advanced transport algorithm, Geosci. Model Dev, pp.1407-142710, 1407.
DOI : 10.5194/gmdd-5-3419-2012

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-5-3419-2012

M. Stieglitz, A. Ducharne, R. D. Koster, and M. J. Suarez, The Impact of Detailed Snow Physics on the Simulation of Snow Cover and Subsurface Thermodynamics at Continental Scales, Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol.2, issue.3, pp.228-242, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1525-7541(2001)002<0228:TIODSP>2.0.CO;2

W. R. Stockwell, F. Kirchner, M. Kuhn, and S. Seefeld, A new mechanism for regional atmospheric chemistry modeling, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.25, issue.D22, pp.25847-25879, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/kin.550250704

D. Z. Stockwell, M. P. Chipperfield, and . Roy, A tropospheric chemical-transport model: Development and validation of the model transport schemes, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.64, issue.557, pp.1747-1783, 1999.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712555714

K. A. Stone, O. Morgenstern, D. J. Karoly, A. R. Klekociuk, W. J. French et al., Evaluation of the ACCESS ? chemistry?climate model for the Southern Hemisphere, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.16, issue.4, pp.2401-241510, 2016.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-16-2401-2016

S. E. Strahan, B. N. Duncan, and P. Hoor, Observationally derived transport diagnostics for the lowermost stratosphere and their application to the GMI chemistry and transport model, Atmos . Chem. Phys, vol.75194, pp.2435-244510, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00302553

Y. C. Sud, W. C. Chao, and G. K. Walker, Dependence of rainfall on vegetation: theoretical considerations, simulation experiments, observations, and inferences from simulated atmospheric soundings, Journal of Arid Environments, vol.25, issue.1, pp.5-18, 1993.
DOI : 10.1006/jare.1993.1038

K. Sudo and H. Akimoto, Global source attribution of tropospheric ozone: Long-range transport from various source regions, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.105, issue.D22, pp.10-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JD007992

K. Sudo, M. Takahashi, J. Kurokawa, and H. Akimoto, CHASER: A global chemical model of the troposphere 1. Model description, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.100, issue.D17, pp.10-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/95JD00370

T. Sukhodolov, E. Rozanov, A. I. Shapiro, J. Anet, C. Cagnazzo et al., Evaluation of the ECHAM family radiation codes performance in the representation of the solar signal, Geosci. Model Dev, vol.75194, pp.2859-286610, 2014.

H. Sundqvist, A parameterization scheme for non-convective condensation including prediction of cloud water content, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.99, issue.441, pp.677-690, 1978.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49710444110

S. Szopa, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, S. Bekki, D. Cugnet et al., Aerosol and ozone changes as forcing for climate evolution between 1850 and 2100, Climate Dynamics, vol.109, issue.3, pp.2223-2250, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s00382-012-1408-y

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00723730

T. Takemura, Distributions and climate effects of atmospheric aerosols from the preindustrial era to 2100 along Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) simulated using the global aerosol model SPRINTARS, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.125194, pp.11555-1157210, 2012.

T. Takemura, T. Nozawa, S. Emori, T. Y. Nakajima, and T. Nakajima, Simulation of climate response to aerosol direct and indirect effects with aerosol transport-radiation model, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.107, issue.D21, pp.10-1029, 2005.
DOI : 10.1029/91JD03139

P. J. Telford, N. L. Abraham, A. T. Archibald, P. Braesicke, M. Dalvi et al., Implementation of the Fast-JX Photolysis scheme (v6.4) into the UKCA component of the MetUM chemistry-climate model (v7.3), Geosci. Model Dev, pp.161-17710, 2013.
DOI : 10.5194/gmd-6-161-2013

W. Tian, M. P. Chipperfield, and . Roy, A new coupled chemistry?climate model for the stratosphere: The importance of coupling for future O<SUB>3</SUB>-climate predictions, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.1, issue.605, pp.281-303, 2005.
DOI : 10.1256/qj.04.05

W. Tian, M. P. Chipperfield, D. S. Stevenson, R. Damoah, S. Dhomse et al., Effects of stratosphere-troposphere chemistry coupling on tropospheric ozone, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.103, issue.D2, pp.0-0410, 2010.
DOI : 10.1029/2009JD013515

X. Tie, S. Madronich, S. Walters, D. P. Edwards, P. Ginoux et al., Assessment of the global impact of aerosols on tropospheric oxidants, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.100, issue.D14, pp.320410-1029, 2005.
DOI : 10.1080/07055900.1995.9649539

M. Tiedtke, A Comprehensive Mass Flux Scheme for Cumulus Parameterization in Large-Scale Models, Monthly Weather Review, vol.117, issue.8, pp.1179-1800, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<1779:ACMFSF>2.0.CO;2

S. Tilmes, M. J. Mills, U. Niemeier, H. Schmidt, A. Robock et al., A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models, Geosci. Model Dev, vol.85194, pp.43-4910, 2015.
DOI : 10.5194/gmdd-7-5447-2014

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-7-5447-2014

A. M. Tompkins, A Prognostic Parameterization for the Subgrid-Scale Variability of Water Vapor and Clouds in Large-Scale Models and Its Use to Diagnose Cloud Cover, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.59, issue.12, pp.1917-1942, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<1917:APPFTS>2.0.CO;2

H. Tost, P. Jöckel, A. Kerkweg, R. Sander, J. G. Lelieveld et al., Technical note: A new comprehensive SCAVenging submodel for global atmospheric chemistry modelling, Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires, pp.565-574, 1997.
DOI : 10.5194/acpd-5-11157-2005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00301901

J. Vernier, L. W. Thomason, J. Pommereau, A. Bourassa, J. Pelon et al., Major influence of tropical volcanic eruptions on the stratospheric aerosol layer during the last decade, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.91, issue.9, p.1280710, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2011GL047563

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00608216

A. Voldoire, E. Sanchez-gomez, D. Salas-y-mélia, B. Decharme, C. Cassou et al., The CNRM-CM5.1 global climate model: description and basic evaluation, The CNRM-CM5.1 global climate model: description and basic evaluation, pp.2091-212110, 1007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00382-011-1259-y

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00833024

K. Von-salzen, J. F. Scinocca, N. A. Mcfarlane, J. Li, J. N. Cole et al., The Canadian Fourth Generation Atmospheric Global Climate Model (CanAM4). Part I: Representation of Physical Processes, Atmosphere-Ocean, vol.109, issue.1, pp.104-125, 2013.
DOI : 10.1175/MWR2997.1

D. N. Walters, K. D. Williams, I. A. Boutle, A. C. Bushell, J. M. Edwards et al., The Met Office Unified Model Global Atmosphere 4, pp.361-38610, 2014.
DOI : 10.5194/gmd-7-361-2014

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-361-2014

Y. Wang, D. Jacob, L. , and J. , -hydrocarbon chemistry: 1. Model formulation, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.100, issue.D9, pp.10713-1072510, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/95JD00370

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00787126

R. H. Wanninkhof, Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.35, issue.C5, pp.7373-7382, 1992.
DOI : 10.1029/92JC00188

S. Watanabe, T. Hajima, K. Sudo, T. Nagashima, T. Takemura et al., MIROC-ESM 2010: model description and basic results of CMIP5-20c3m experiments, Geoscientific Model Development, vol.4, issue.4, pp.845-87210, 2011.
DOI : 10.5194/gmd-4-845-2011

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-4-845-2011

S. Webster, A. R. Brown, D. R. Cameron, C. P. Jones, and . Roy, Improvements to the representation of orography in the Met Office Unified Model, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.125, issue.591, 1989.
DOI : 10.1256/qj.02.133

T. Wegner, D. E. Kinnison, R. R. Garcia, S. Madronich, and S. Solomon, Polar stratospheric clouds in SD-WACCM4, J. Geophys. Res, vol.118, pp.1-12, 2013.

M. L. Wesely, Parameterization of surface resistances to gaseous dry deposition in regional-scale numerical models, Atmospheric Environment (1967), vol.23, issue.6, pp.1293-130410, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-6981(89)90153-4

D. L. Williamson and P. J. Rasch, Two-Dimensional Semi-Lagrangian Transport with Shape-Preserving Interpolation, Monthly Weather Review, vol.117, issue.1, pp.102-129, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<0102:TDSLTW>2.0.CO;2

D. R. Wilson, A. C. Bushell, A. M. Kerr-munslow, J. D. Price, and C. J. Morcrette, PC2: A prognostic cloud fraction and condensation scheme. I: Scheme description, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.57, issue.637, pp.2093-2107, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.333

K. Yessad, Horizontal diffusion computations in the cycle 24T1 of ARPEGE/IFS, ARPEGE Technical Documentation, 2001.

J. J. Yienger and H. Levy, emissions, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.97, issue.43, pp.11447-11464, 1995.
DOI : 10.1029/92JD00412

H. Yoshimura and S. Yukimoto, Development of a Simple Coupler (Scup) for Earth System Modeling, Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics, vol.59, pp.19-29, 2008.
DOI : 10.2467/mripapers.59.19

S. Yukimoto, Y. Adachi, M. Hosaka, T. Sakami, H. Yoshimura et al., A New Global Climate Model of the Meteorological Research Institute: MRI-CGCM3 ^|^mdash;Model Description and Basic Performance^|^mdash;, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, vol.90, issue.0, pp.23-64, 2012.
DOI : 10.2151/jmsj.2012-A02

W. G. Zdunkowski, R. M. Welch, and G. Korb, An investigation of the structure of typical two-stream-methods for the calculation of solar fluxes and heating rates in clouds, Contr. Phys. Atmos, vol.53, pp.147-166, 1980.

G. Zeng and J. A. Pyle, Changes in tropospheric ozone between 2000 and 2100 modeled in a chemistry-climate model, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.283, issue.7, pp.10-1029, 1392.
DOI : 10.1126/science.283.5410.2064

L. Zhang, M. Moran, P. Makar, J. Brook, and S. Gong, Modelling gaseous dry deposition in AURAMS: a unified regional air-quality modelling system, Atmospheric Environment, vol.36, issue.3, pp.537-560, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00447-2

L. Zhang, J. R. Brook, and R. Vet, A revised parameterization for gaseous dry deposition in air-quality models, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.35194, pp.2067-208210, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00295366