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Export Time of Earthquake-Derived Landslides in Active Mountain Ranges

Abstract : In active mountain ranges, large earthquakes (Mw > 5-6) trigger numerous landslides that impact river dynamics. These landslides bring local and sudden sediment deposits which are eroded and transported along the river network, causing downstream changes in river geometry, transport capacity and erosion efficiency. The progressive removal of landslide materials has implications for downstream hazards management and for landscape dynamics at the timescale of the seismic cycle. Although the export time of suspended sediments from landslides triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes has been extensively studied, the processes and time scales associated to bedload transport remains poorly studied. Here, we study the sediment export of large landslides with the 2D morphodynamic model, Eros. This model combines: (i) an hydrodynamic model, (ii) a sediment transport and deposition model and (iii) a lateral erosion model. Eros is particularly well suited for this issue as it accounts for the complex retro-actions between sediment transport and fluvial geometry for rivers submitted to external forcings such as abrupt sediment supply increase. Using a simplified synthetic topography we systematically study the influence of pulse volume (Vs) and channel transport capacity (QT) on the export time of landslides. The range of simulated river behavior includes landslide vertical incision, its subsequent removal by lateral erosion and the river morphology modifications induced by downstream sediment propagation. The morphodynamic adaptation of the river increases its transport capacity along the channel and tends to accelerate the landslide evacuation. Our results highlight two regimes: (i) the export time is linearly related to Vs/QT when the sediment pulse introduced in the river does not affect significantly the river hydrodynamic (low Vs/QT) and (ii) the export time is a non-linear function of Vs/QT when the pulse undergoes significant morphodynamic modifications during its evacuation (high Vs/QT). By combining our newly derived export time functions with the frequency-magnitude of earthquake intensity and the induced sediment production, we investigate the sediment export of several plausible earthquake scenarii in different mountain ranges (New Zealand, Taiwan, Nepal).
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Conference papers
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https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01417021
Contributor : Isabelle Dubigeon <>
Submitted on : Thursday, December 15, 2016 - 11:06:12 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, December 4, 2019 - 3:30:04 PM

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  • HAL Id : insu-01417021, version 1

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Thomas Croissant, Dimitri Lague, Philippe Steer, Philippe Davy. Export Time of Earthquake-Derived Landslides in Active Mountain Ranges. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2016, American Geophysical Union, Dec 2016, San Francisco, United States. pp.EP32C-07. ⟨insu-01417021⟩

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