The 2016 Feb 19 outburst of comet 67P/CG: an ESA Rosetta multi-instrument study

Eberhard Grün 1, 2 Jessica Agarwal 3 Nicolas Altobelli 4 Kathrin Altwegg 5 Mark Stephen Bentley 6 Nicolas Biver 7 Vincenzo Della Corte 8 Niklas J. T. Edberg 9 P. D. Feldman 10 M. Galand 11 B. Geiger 4 C. Götz 12 B. Grieger 4 Carsten Güttler 3 Pierre Henri 13 M. Hofstadter 14 M. Horanyi 2 E. Jehin 15 H. Krüger 3 S. Lee 14 T. Mannel 6 E. Morales 16 O. Mousis 17 M. Müller 18 C. Opitom 15 Alessandra Rotundi 8, 19 R. Schmied 20, 6 F. Schmidt 21 Holger Sierks 3 C. Snodgrass 22 R. H. Soja 21 M. Sommer 21 R. Srama 21 C.-Y. Tzou 5 Jean-Baptiste Vincent 3 P. Yanamandra-Fisher 23 Michael F. A’hearn 24 A. I. Erikson 9 Cesare Barbieri 25 M. A. Barucci 7 Jean-Loup Bertaux 26 I. Bertini 27 J. Burch 28 Luigi Colangeli 29 Gabriele Cremonese 30 V. Da Deppo 31 Björn Davidsson 32 S. Debei 33 M. De Cecco 34 J. Deller 3 L. M. Feaga 24 M. Ferrari 8 Sonia Fornasier 7 Marco Fulle 34 Adeline Gicquel 3 M. Gillon 15 S. F. Green 22 O. Groussin 17 P. J. Gutiérrez 35 M. Hofmann 3 S. F. Hviid 36 W.-H. Ip 37 S. Ivanovski 8 L. Jorda 17 H. U. Keller 12 M. M. Knight 24 J. Knollenberg 36 Detlef Koschny 29 J.-R. Kramm 3 E. Kührt 36 M. Küppers 38 P. L. Lamy 17 L. M. Lara 35 M. Lazzarin 25 J. J. Lòpez-Moreno 35 J. Manfroid 15 Elena Mazzotta Epifani 39 F. Marzari 25 G. Naletto 27, 40, 31 N. Oklay 3 P. Palumbo 8, 19 J. Wm. Parker 41 Hans Rickman 42, 32 Rafael Rodrigo 43, 4 J. Rodrìguez 35 E. Schindhelm 44 X. Shi 3 R. Sordini 8 A. J. Steffl 44 S. A. Stern 44 Nicholas Thomas 5 Cécilia Tubiana 3 H. A. Weaver 45 Paul R. Weissman 46 Vladimir V. Zakharov 47, 7 M. G. G. T. Taylor 29
26 IMPEC - LATMOS
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
Abstract : On 19 Feb. 2016 nine Rosetta instruments serendipitously observed an outburst of gas and dust from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Among these instruments were cameras and spectrometers ranging from UV over visible to microwave wavelengths, in-situ gas, dust and plasma instruments, and one dust collector. At 9:40 a dust cloud developed at the edge of an image in the shadowed region of the nucleus. Over the next two hours the instruments recorded a signature of the outburst that significantly exceeded the background. The enhancement ranged from 50% of the neutral gas density at Rosetta to factors >100 of the brightness of the coma near the nucleus. Dust related phenomena (dust counts or brightness due to illuminated dust) showed the strongest enhancements (factors >10). However, even the electron density at Rosetta increased by a factor 3 and consequently the spacecraft potential changed from ∼−16 V to −20 V during the outburst. A clear sequence of events was observed at the distance of Rosetta (34 km from the nucleus): within 15 minutes the Star Tracker camera detected fast particles (∼25 m s−1) while 100 μm radius particles were detected by the GIADA dust instrument ∼1 hour later at a speed of ~6 m s−1. The slowest were individual mm to cm sized grains observed by the OSIRIS cameras. Although the outburst originated just outside the FOV of the instruments, the source region and the magnitude of the outburst could be determined.
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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy P - Oxford Open Option A, 2016, 462 (Suppl. 1), pp.S220-S234. <10.1093/mnras/stw2088>
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Eberhard Grün, Jessica Agarwal, Nicolas Altobelli, Kathrin Altwegg, Mark Stephen Bentley, et al.. The 2016 Feb 19 outburst of comet 67P/CG: an ESA Rosetta multi-instrument study. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy P - Oxford Open Option A, 2016, 462 (Suppl. 1), pp.S220-S234. <10.1093/mnras/stw2088>. <insu-01368002>

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