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Study and mitigation of calibration error sources in a water vapor Raman lidar

Leslie David 1 Olivier Bock 1 Christian Thom 2 Pierre Bosser 3, 4 Jacques Pelon 5
1 LAREG - LAboratoire de REcherche en Géodésie [Paris]
LaSTIG - Laboratoire des Sciences et Technologies de l'Information Géographique
2 LOEMI - Laboratoire d'Opto-électronique et de Micro-Informatique
LaSTIG - Laboratoire des Sciences et Technologies de l'Information Géographique
Lab-STICC - Laboratoire des sciences et techniques de l'information, de la communication et de la connaissance
ENSTA Bretagne - École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées Bretagne
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
Abstract : A detailed investigation of calibration variation sources in the instrumental part of the detection-fibered, water vapor Raman lidar, Rameau, is presented. This lidar has been developed by the Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) together with the Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS) and aims at calibrating GNSS wet delay signals and thus at improving vertical positioning. Several measurements campaigns enabled to validate the capacity of the instrument to retrieve high accuracy water vapor measurements. However, in order to insure a good stability, regular calibrations were necessary and led us to seek for instability sources in each sub-system of the instrument. The calibration variations are shown to be induced by fiber mode fluctuations and spatial non-uniformity of the photomultiplier photocathodes, and are responsible for significant calibration coefficient drifts. Such drifts are incompatible with both the long term stability required for applications such as climatology and the absolute accuracy needed for wet path delay correction of GNSS signals. We show by means of experimental tests that variation sources can be mitigated by means of an optimization and re-design of the optical detection system, a careful alignment procedure, and the operational monitoring of the system with dedicated measurements. In order to validate the modifications of the system and the new procedure, measurements were repeated over a period of 5 months. The detection subsystem stability was monitored from lidar profiles measured with a unique nitrogen filter used for detecting the signal in the two measurement channels. Compared to the previous campaign (Development of Methodologies for Water Vapor Measurement, Demevap), we observe an improvement in the stability of the system based on the nitrogen measurements which showed a drift of less than 3 % per month and a standard deviation of about 3 % during the campaign. The water vapor calibration coefficients were determined from capacitive humidity sensor measurements and from GPS zenith wet delays measurements. They show a similar small drift of 3 % per month and a standard deviation of ~ 6 %. Thanks to the N2 measurements, the drift can be completely removed. Lower standard deviation can be achieved by increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio and/or spatial and temporal integration window.
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Submitted on : Thursday, July 14, 2016 - 1:41:46 PM
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Leslie David, Olivier Bock, Christian Thom, Pierre Bosser, Jacques Pelon. Study and mitigation of calibration error sources in a water vapor Raman lidar. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, European Geosciences Union, 2016, pp.(under review). ⟨10.5194/amt-2016-187⟩. ⟨insu-01345598⟩



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