LOFAR discovery of a quiet emission mode in PSR B0823+26

C. Sobey 1 N. J. Young 2 J. W. T. Hessels 3 P. Weltevrede 4 A. Noutsos 1 B. W. Stappers 4 M. Kramer 1, 5 C. Bassa 6 A. G. Lyne 4 V. I. Kondratiev 7 T. E. Hassall 4 E. F. Keane 8 A. V. Bilous 9 R. P. Breton 4 Jean-Mathias Grießmeier 10 A. Karastergiou 11, 12 M. Pilia 7 M. Serylak 10, 13 S. ter Veen 9 J. van Leeuwen 3 A. Alexov 7 J. Anderson 14 A. Asgekar 15 I. M. Avruch 16 M. E. Bell 17 M. J. Bentum 15 G. Bernardi 18 P. Best 19 L. Bîrzan 20 A. Bonafede 21 F. Breitling 22 J. Broderick 23 M. Brüggen 21 A. Corstanje 24 D. Carbone 3 E. de Geus 25 M. de Vos 7 A. van Duin 15 S. Duscha 15 J. Eislöffel 26 H. Falcke 24 R. A. Fallows 27 R. Fender 23 C. Ferrari 28 W. Frieswijk 7 M. A. Garrett 20 A. W. Gunst 15 J. P. Hamaker 15 G. Heald 7 M. Hoeft 26 J. Hörandel 24 E. Jütte 29 G. Kuper 7 P. Maat 15 G. Mann 30 S. Markoff 31 R. Mcfadden 15 D. Mckay-Bukowski 32 J. P. Mckean 7 D. D. Mulcahy 23 H. Munk 15 A. Nelles 24 M. J. Norden 7 E. Orrù 7 H. Paas 33 M. Pandey-Pommier 34 V. N. Pandey 35 G. Pietka 12 R. Pizzo 7 A. G. Polatidis 7 D. Rafferty 36 A. Renting 7 H. Röttgering 20 A. Rowlinson 17 A. M. M. Scaife 37 D. Schwarz 38 J. Sluman 7 O. Smirnov 39 M. Steinmetz 40 A. Stewart 41 J. Swinbank 31 Michel Tagger 10 Y. Tang 42 C. Tasse 43, 44 S. Thoudam 24 C. Toribio 7 R. Vermeulen 7 C. Vocks 30 R. J. van Weeren 45 R. A. M. J. Wijers 31 M. W. Wise 31 O. Wucknitz 46 S. Yatawatta 7 P. Zarka 47
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Abstract : PSR B0823+26, a 0.53-s radio pulsar, displays a host of emission phenomena over timescales of seconds to (at least) hours, including nulling, subpulse drifting, and mode-changing. Studying pulsars like PSR B0823+26 provides further insight into the relationship between these various emission phenomena and what they might teach us about pulsar magnetospheres. Here we report on the LOFAR discovery that PSR B0823+26 has a weak and sporadically emitting 'quiet' (Q) emission mode that is over 100 times weaker (on average) and has a nulling fraction forty-times greater than that of the more regularly-emitting 'bright' (B) mode. Previously, the pulsar has been undetected in the Q-mode, and was assumed to be nulling continuously. PSR B0823+26 shows a further decrease in average flux just before the transition into the B-mode, and perhaps truly turns off completely at these times. Furthermore, simultaneous observations taken with the LOFAR, Westerbork, Lovell, and Effelsberg telescopes between 110 MHz and 2.7 GHz demonstrate that the transition between the Q-mode and B-mode occurs within one single rotation of the neutron star, and that it is concurrent across the range of frequencies observed.
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C. Sobey, N. J. Young, J. W. T. Hessels, P. Weltevrede, A. Noutsos, et al.. LOFAR discovery of a quiet emission mode in PSR B0823+26. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy P - Oxford Open Option A, 2015, 451 (3), pp.2493-2506. ⟨10.1093/mnras/stv1066⟩. ⟨insu-01323239⟩

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