K. Abe, Magnitudes of large shallow earthquakes from 1904 to 1980, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.27, issue.1, pp.72-92, 1904.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-9201(81)90088-1

S. Akciz, L. Ludwig, J. Arrowsmith, and O. Zielke, Century-long average time intervals between earthquake ruptures of the San Andreas fault in the Carrizo Plain, California, Geology, vol.38, issue.9, pp.787-790, 2010.
DOI : 10.1130/G30995.1

C. R. Allen, Seismological and paleoseismological techniques of research in active tectonics, in Active Tectonics, pp.148-154, 1986.

C. R. Allen and J. N. Brune, A low-stress-drop, low-magnitude earthquake with surface faulting: The Imperial, California, earthquake of, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.57, pp.501-514, 1966.

N. N. Ambraseys, Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East: A Multidisciplinary Study of Seismicity Up to 1900, 2009.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9781139195430

J. Avouac and P. Tapponnier, Kinematic model of active deformation in central Asia, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.97, issue.1, pp.895-89810, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/93GL00128

W. H. Bakun and C. M. Wentworth, Estimating earthquake location and magnitude from seismic intensity data, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.87, pp.1502-1521, 1997.

M. Berberian, J. Jackson, E. Fielding, B. Parsons, K. Priestley et al., 6.6) in Kerman province, southeast Iran: re-rupture of the 1981 Sirch earthquake fault, triggering of slip on adjacent thrusts and the active tectonics of the Gowk fault zone, The, pp.371-398, 1998.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-246x.2001.01459.x

K. Berryman, U. Cochran, K. Clark, G. Biasi, R. Langridge et al., Major Earthquakes Occur Regularly on an Isolated Plate Boundary Fault, Science, vol.336, issue.6089, pp.1690-1693, 2012.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1218959

M. G. Bonilla and J. J. Lienkaemper, Visibility of fault strands in exploratory trenches and timing of rupture events, Geology, vol.18, issue.2, pp.153-156, 1990.
DOI : 10.1130/0091-7613(1990)018<0153:VOFSIE>2.3.CO;2

M. T. Brocher, The Mw 6.0 24 August 2014 South Napa Earthquake, Seismological Research Letters, vol.86, issue.2A, pp.309-326, 1924.
DOI : 10.1785/0220150004

C. Bronk-ramsey, Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit. [Available at https, OxCal 4.2 manual, 2013.

B. C. Burchfiel, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Molnar et al., Geology of the Haiyuan Fault Zone, Ningxia-Hui Autonomous Region, China, and its relation to the evolution of the Northeastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau, Tectonics, vol.77, issue.6, pp.1091-111010, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/90TC02685

Z. Cai, W. Zhang, and D. Jiao, Discussion of the level active severity in different time intervals and segments on late Quaternary along Tianjingshan fault zone, Chinese with English abstract], Earthquake Res. China, pp.35-42, 1997.

O. Cavalié, C. Lasserre, M. P. Doin, G. Peltzer, J. Sun et al., Measurement of interseismic strain across the Haiyuan fault (Gansu, China), by InSAR, Measurement of interseismic strain across the Haiyuan Fault (Gansu, China), by InSAR, pp.246-257, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.07.057

T. Chen, P. Zhang, J. Liu, C. Li, Z. Ren et al., Quantitative study of tectonic geomorphology along Haiyuan fault based on airborne LiDAR, Chinese Science Bulletin, vol.4, issue.20, pp.2396-240910, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s11434-014-0199-4

W. P. Chen and P. Molnar, Seismic moments of major earthquakes and the average rate of slip in central Asia, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.82, issue.1, pp.2954-2969, 1977.
DOI : 10.1029/JB082i020p02945

U. Close and E. Mccormick, Where the mountains walked, Natl. Geogr. Mag, vol.12, issue.5, pp.445-464, 1922.

C. Of, E. Research, and A. Sinica, Chronical Data of Chinese Historical Earthquakes, Chinese], Book Ser. I & II, 1956.

M. Daëron, Y. Klinger, P. Tapponnier, A. Elias, E. Jacques et al., 000-year-long record of up to 14 paleo-earthquakes on the Yammoûneh Fault (Levant fault system), Bull, Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.12, issue.97, pp.749-771, 2007.

Q. Deng, S. Chen, F. Song, S. Zhou, Y. Wang et al., Variations in the geometry and amount of slip on the Haiyuan (Nanxihaushan) fault zone, China and the surface rupture of the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake, Earthquake Source Mechanics, pp.169-182, 1986.

G. Ding, J. Chen, Q. Tian, X. Shen, C. Xing et al., Active faults and magnitudes of left-lateral displacement along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, Tectonophysics, vol.380, issue.3-4, pp.243-260, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tecto.2003.09.022

A. R. Duvall and M. Clark, Dissipation of fast strike-slip faulting within and beyond northeastern Tibet, Geology, vol.38, issue.3, pp.38-223, 2010.
DOI : 10.1130/G30711.1

E. H. Field, Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3 (UCERF3)--The Time-Independent Model, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.104, issue.3, pp.1122-1180, 2014.
DOI : 10.1785/0120130164

Y. Gaudemer, P. Tapponnier, B. Meyer, G. Peltzer, S. Guo et al., Partitioning of crustal slip between linked, active faults in the eastern Qilian Shan, and evidence for a major seismic gap, the ???Tianzhu gap', on the western Haiyuan Fault, Gansu (China), on the western Haiyuan Fault, Gansu (China), pp.599-645, 1995.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1995.tb01842.x

L. Grant-ludwig, S. O. Akçiz, G. R. Noriega, O. Zielke, and J. R. Arrowsmith, Climate-modulated channel incision and rupture history of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain, Science, vol.27, pp.1117-1119, 2010.

W. He, B. Liu, T. Lu, D. Yuan, J. Liu et al., Study on the segmentation of Laohushan fault zone, Chinese with English abstract], pp.66-72, 1994.

W. He, B. Liu, T. Lu, D. Yuan, and X. Liu, The late Quaternary activity of the Maomaoshan fault zone, Chinese with English abstract Research on Active Fault Series 5, pp.63-77, 1996.

K. W. Hudnut, L. Seeber, and J. Pacheco, Cross-fault triggering in the November 1987 Superstition Hills Earthquake Sequence, southern California, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.13, issue.No. 4, pp.199-202, 1989.
DOI : 10.1029/GL016i002p00199

K. W. Hudnut, Key recovery factors for the, South Napa earthquake, U.S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Rep, 2014.

G. Institute, China Earthquake Administration (IGCEA), and Institute of Historic Geography, Atlas of the Historic Earthquakes in China, the Ming Dynasty Period Chinese], 194 pp., China Cartogr. House, 1986.

G. Institute, China Earthquake Administration (IGCEA), and Institute of Historic Geography, Atlas of the Historic Earthquakes in China, the Qing Dynasty Period Chinese], 244 pp., China Cartogr. House, 1990.

Y. Klinger, Relation between continental strike-slip earthquake segmentation and thickness of the crust, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.157, issue.3, pp.10-1029, 2010.
DOI : 10.1029/2009JB006550

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01302182

Y. Klinger, M. L. Béon, and M. , 5000 yr of paleoseismicity along the southern Dead Sea fault, 5000 yr of paleoseismicity along the southern Dead Sea fault, pp.313-327, 2015.
DOI : 10.1093/gji/ggv134

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01301716

Y. Klinger, M. Etchebes, P. Tapponnier, and C. Narteau, Characteristic slip for five great earthquakes along the Fuyun fault in China, Nature Geoscience, vol.2, issue.6, pp.389-39210, 1038.
DOI : 10.1038/ngeo1158

H. Kondo, V. Özaksoy, and C. Y?ldirim, Slip history of the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake rupture along the North Anatolian fault system: Implications for recurrence behavior of multisegment earthquakes, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.85, issue.1, pp.431610-1029, 2010.
DOI : 10.1029/2009JB006413

C. Lasserre, Postglacial left slip rate and past occurrence of M ? 8 earthquakes on the western Haiyuan Fault, J. Geophys. Res, vol.104652, issue.17, pp.633-1710, 1999.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01499472

W. R. Lettis, D. L. Wells, and J. N. Baldwin, Empirical observations regarding reverse earthquakes, blind thrust faults, and quaternary deformation: Are blind thrust faults truly blind?, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.87, issue.5, pp.1171-1198, 1997.

C. Li, P. Zhang, J. Yin, and W. Min, Late Quaternary left-lateral slip rate of the Haiyuan fault, northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, Tectonics, vol.77, issue.9, pp.10-1029, 2009.
DOI : 10.1029/2008TC002302

B. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Wu, and H. Guo, Reevaluating on casualty in the Haiyuan M s 8.5 earthquake on December 16, Earthquake Res. China, vol.19, issue.4, pp.386-399, 1920.

Y. Liu, A. Wang, Y. Li, H. Liu, and Y. Zhang, Research on active features and tectonic stability in the late Quaternary of the Northern Piedmont Fault of Changlingshan, Chinese with English abstract], Earthquake Res. China, pp.394-404, 2006.

J. Liu-zeng, Y. Klinger, K. Sieh, C. Rubin, and G. Seitz, Serial ruptures of the San Andreas fault, Carrizo Plain, California, revealed by three-dimensional excavations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.85, issue.9, pp.230610-1029, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2004JB003601

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01302170

J. Liu-zeng, Y. Klinger, X. Xu, C. Lasserre, G. Chen et al., Millennial Recurrence of Large Earthquakes on the Haiyuan Fault near Songshan, Gansu Province, China, Millennial recurrence of large earthquakes on the Haiyuan Fault near Songshan, Gansu Province, China, pp.14-34, 2007.
DOI : 10.1785/0120050118

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01301898

S. Marco, M. Stein, and A. Agnon, Long-term earthquake clustering: A 50,000-year paleoseismic record in the Dead Sea Graben, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.113, issue.14, pp.6179-6191, 1996.
DOI : 10.1029/95JB01587

S. Marco, A. Agnon, R. Ellenblum, A. Eidelman, U. Basson et al., 817-Year-old walls offset sinistrally 2.1 m by the Dead Sea transform, Israel, Journal of Geodynamics, vol.24, issue.1-4, pp.11-20, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-3707(96)00041-5

S. F. Mcgill and K. Sieh, Surficial offsets on the Central and Eastern Garlock Fault associated with prehistoric earthquakes, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.95, issue.499, pp.597-2110, 1991.
DOI : 10.1029/91JB02030

W. Min, P. Zhang, Q. Deng, and F. Mao, Detailed study of Holocene paleoearthquakes of the Haiyuan active fault, Geol. Rev, vol.47, issue.1, pp.75-81, 2001.

Z. Nie and W. Lin, Middle segment of Zhongwei-Tongxin fault zone: Seismic deformation band of 1709 earthquake with M = 7½ Xiangshan-Tianjingshan fault zone, Chinese with English abstract, pp.41-44, 1993.

S. P. Nishenko and R. Buland, A generic recurrence interval distribution for earthquake forecasting, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.77, issue.1, pp.382-1399, 1987.

G. Peltzer and P. Tapponnier, Formation and evolution of strike-slip faults, rifts, and basins during the India-Asia Collision: An experimental approach, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.4, issue.4, pp.85-1510, 1988.
DOI : 10.1029/JB093iB12p15085

Y. Ran, R. Duan, and Q. Deng, 3-D trench excavation and paleoseismology at Gaowanzi of the Haiyuan Fault, Chinese with English abstract], pp.97-107, 1997.

P. J. Reimer, IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, years cal B.P, Radiocarbon, pp.0-50, 2009.

T. K. Rockwell, R. S. Mcelwain, D. E. Millman, and D. L. Lamar, Recurrent late Holocene faulting on the Glen Ivy north strand of the Elsinore Fault at Glen Ivy marsh, Guidebook and Volume on Neotectonics and Faulting in Southern California, pp.167-176, 1986.

T. K. Rockwell, T. E. Dawson, J. Y. Ben-horin, and G. Seitz, A 21-Event, 4,000-Year History of Surface Ruptures in the Anza Seismic Gap, San Jacinto Fault, and Implications for Long-term Earthquake Production on a Major Plate Boundary Fault, Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol.172, issue.5, pp.1143-1165, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s00024-014-0955-z

R. W. Romeo, Earthquake Hazard in Italy, 2001???2030, Natural Hazards, vol.85, issue.4, pp.383-405, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s11069-005-1939-1

M. J. Rymer, J. Boatwright, L. C. Seekins, J. D. Yule, and J. Liu, Triggered Surface Slips in the Salton Trough Associated with the, 1999.

M. J. Rymer, Triggered surface slips in southern California associated with the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah, U.S. Geol. Surv. Open File Rep, pp.2010-1333, 2010.

K. Scharer, R. Weldon, I. , A. Streig, and T. Fumal, Paleoearthquakes at Frazier Mountain, California delimit extent and frequency of past San Andreas Fault ruptures along 1857 trace, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.102, issue.3, pp.4527-453410, 2014.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1182781

K. M. Scharer, R. J. Weldon, T. E. Fumal, and G. P. Biasi, Paleoearthquakes on the southern San Andreas Fault, Wrightwood, CA 3000 to 1500 B.C.: A new method for evaluating paleoseismic evidence and earthquake horizons, pp.1054-1093, 2007.

C. H. Scholz, Scaling laws for large earthquakes: Consequences for physical models, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.72, issue.1, pp.1-14, 1982.

D. P. Schwartz and K. J. Coppersmith, Fault behavior and characteristic earthquakes: Examples from the Wasatch and San Andreas Fault Zones, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.157, issue.B7, pp.5681-569810, 1984.
DOI : 10.1029/JB089iB07p05681

K. E. Sieh, Prehistoric large earthquakes produced by slip on the San Andreas Fault at Pallett Creek, California, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.194, issue.B8, pp.3907-393910, 1978.
DOI : 10.1029/JB083iB08p03907

K. E. Sieh, Slip along the San Andreas Fault associated with the great 1857 earthquake, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.68, pp.1421-1448, 1978.

K. E. Sieh, The repetition of large-earthquake ruptures., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.93, issue.9, pp.3764-3771, 1996.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.93.9.3764

K. E. Sieh, D. H. Natawidjaja, A. J. Meltzner, C. Shen, H. Cheng et al., Earthquake Supercycles Inferred from Sea-Level Changes Recorded in the Corals of West Sumatra, Science, vol.322, issue.5908, pp.322-1674, 2008.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1163589

A. R. Streig, T. E. Dawson, R. J. Weldon, and I. , Paleoseismic Evidence of the 1890 and 1838 Earthquakes on the Santa Cruz Mountains Section of the San Andreas Fault, near Corralitos, California, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.104, issue.1, pp.285-30010, 1785.
DOI : 10.1785/0120130009

M. Stuiver and H. A. Polach, Discussion Reporting of 14C Data, Radiocarbon, vol.19, issue.03, pp.355-363, 1977.
DOI : 10.1017/S0033822200003672

N. Wechsler, T. K. Rockwell, Y. Klinger, P. Stepancikova, M. Kanari et al., A Paleoseismic Record of Earthquakes for the Dead Sea Transform Fault between the First and Seventh Centuries C.E.: Nonperiodic Behavior of a Plate Boundary Fault, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.104, issue.3, pp.1329-1347, 2014.
DOI : 10.1785/0120130304

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01304944

M. Wei, D. Sandwell, Y. Fialko, and R. Bilham, Slip on faults in the Imperial Valley, M w 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake revealed by InSAR, pp.130810-1029, 2010.

R. J. Weldon, G. Ii, and . Biasi, Probability of detection of ground rupture at paleoseismic sites, Appendix I, Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, 2015.

R. J. Weldon, K. Ii, T. Scharer, G. Fumal, and . Biasi, Wrightwood and the earthquake cycle: What a long recurrence record tells us about how faults work, GSA Today, vol.14, issue.9, pp.4-10, 2004.
DOI : 10.1130/1052-5173(2004)014<4:WATECW>2.0.CO;2

D. L. Wells, K. J. Wells, D. L. , and K. J. Coppersmith, Likelihood of surface rupture as a function of magnitude New empirical relationships among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area, and surface displacement, Seismol. Res. Lett, vol.64, issue.84, pp.974-1002, 1993.

X. Wen, S. Ma, X. Xu, and Y. He, Historical pattern and behavior of earthquake ruptures along the eastern boundary of the Sichuan-Yunnan faulted-block, southwestern China, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.168, issue.1-2, pp.16-36, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pepi.2008.04.013

S. G. Wesnousky, Predicting the endpoints of earthquake ruptures, Nature, vol.117, issue.7117, pp.358-36010, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nature05275

L. Paleoseismic, . Sequence, . Variable, and S. G. Wesnousky, Displacement and geometrical characteristics of earthquake surface ruptures: Issues and implications for seismic hazard analysis and the earthquake rupture process, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.98, issue.4, pp.1609-1632, 2008.

R. S. Yeats, K. Sieh, and C. R. Allen, Geology of Earthquakes, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/B0-12-227410-5/00475-0

G. Yin, Y. Jiang, and G. Yu, The study of the left-lateral displacement on the Xiangshan-Tianjingshan Fault in late Quaternary, Seismol. Geol, vol.35, issue.3, pp.472-479, 2013.

D. Yuan, B. Liu, T. Lu, W. He, X. Liu et al., Study on the segmentation in east segment of the northern Qilianshan fault zone, Chinese with English abstract], pp.27-34, 1998.

P. Zhang, P. Molnar, B. C. Burchfiel, L. Royden, W. Zhang et al., Bounds on the recurrence interval of major earthquakes along the Haiyuan fault in north-central China, Seismol. Res. Lett, vol.59, pp.81-89, 1988.

P. Zhang, B. C. Burchfield, S. Chen, and Q. Deng, Extinction of pull-apart basins, Geology, vol.17, issue.9, pp.814-817, 1989.
DOI : 10.1130/0091-7613(1989)017<0814:EOPAB>2.3.CO;2

P. Zhang, W. Min, Q. Deng, and F. Mao, Paleoearthquake rupture behavior and recurrence of great earthquakes along the Haiyuan fault, northwestern China, Science in China Series D, vol.48, issue.3, pp.705-713, 2003.
DOI : 10.1360/02YD0464

W. Zhang, History of Evolving Townships of the Gansu Province in Maps and Tables, Chinese], 155 pp, 1934.

W. Zhang, D. Jiao, Z. Cai, F. Song, and Y. Wang, Neotectonic features of the Xiangshan-Tianjinshang arc fracture zone and the seismic deformation zone of 1709 south of Zhongwei M = 7½ earthquake, Chinese with English abstract], pp.12-20, 1988.

J. Zhou and B. Liu, The research of active Zhongwei-Tongxin Fault, Chinese with English abstract], pp.71-77, 1987.