Detecting cosmic rays with the LOFAR radio telescope

P. Schellart 1 A. Nelles 1 S. Buitink 1 A. Corstanje 1 J. E. Enriquez 2 H. Falcke 3, 4, 1 W. Frieswijk 3 J. R. Hörandel 1 A. Horneffer 5 C. W. James 6 M. Krause 7 M. Mevius 3 O. Scholten 8 S. ter Veen 9 S. Thoudam 1 M. van den Akker A. Alexov 3 J. Anderson 5 I. M. Avruch 10 L. Bähren 11 R. Beck 12 M. E. Bell P. Bennema M. J. Bentum 3 G. Bernardi 13 P. Best 14 J. Bregman 3 F. Breitling 15 M. Brentjens 3 J. Broderick 16 M. Brüggen 17 B. Ciardi 5 A. Coolen 18 F. de Gasperin 19 E. de Geus 20 A. de Jong 3 M. de Vos S. Duscha 3 J. Eislöffel 21 R. A. Fallows 22 C. Ferrari 23 M. A. Garrett 3, 24 Jean-Mathias Grießmeier 25 T. Grit J. P. Hamaker T. E. Hassall 26 G. Heald 3 J. W. T. Hessels 27 M. Hoeft 21 H. A. Holties 3 M. Iacobelli 24 E. Juette 28 A. Karastergiou 29 W. Klijn J. Kohler 30 V. I. Kondratiev 3 M. Kramer 4 M. Kuniyoshi 4 G. Kuper 3 P. Maat 3 G. Macario 23 G. Mann 31 S. Markoff 11 D. Mckay-Bukowski 32 J. P. Mckean 3 J. C. A. Miller-Jones 11 J. D. Mol 33 D. D. Mulcahy H. Munk 34 R. Nijboer M. J. Norden E. Orru 3 R. Overeem H. Paas 35 M. Pandey-Pommier 36 R. Pizzo 3 A. G. Polatidis 3 A. Renting J. W. Romein H. Röttgering 24 A. Schoenmakers 3 D. Schwarz 37 J. Sluman 3 O. Smirnov 38 C. Sobey 4 B. W. Stappers 26 M. Steinmetz 31 J. Swinbank 11 Y. Tang 3 C. Tasse 39, 40 C. Toribio 3 J. van Leeuwen 27 R. van Nieuwpoort R. J. van Weeren 3 N. Vermaas R. Vermeulen 3 C. Vocks 31 C. Vogt 3 R. A. M. J. Wijers S. J. Wijnholds 3 M. W. Wise 11, 3 O. Wucknitz 41 S. Yatawatta 42 P. Zarka 40 A. Zensus 4
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Abstract : The low frequency array (LOFAR), is the first radio telescope designed with the capability to measure radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers in parallel with interferometric observations. In the first $\sim 2\,\mathrm{years}$ of observing, 405 cosmic-ray events in the energy range of $10^{16} - 10^{18}\,\mathrm{eV}$ have been detected in the band from $30 - 80\,\mathrm{MHz}$. Each of these air showers is registered with up to $\sim1000$ independent antennas resulting in measurements of the radio emission with unprecedented detail. This article describes the dataset, as well as the analysis pipeline, and serves as a reference for future papers based on these data. All steps necessary to achieve a full reconstruction of the electric field at every antenna position are explained, including removal of radio frequency interference, correcting for the antenna response and identification of the pulsed signal.
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P. Schellart, A. Nelles, S. Buitink, A. Corstanje, J. E. Enriquez, et al.. Detecting cosmic rays with the LOFAR radio telescope. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2013, 560 (A98), 14 p. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201322683⟩. ⟨insu-01291251⟩

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