LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray

M. P. van Haarlem 1 M. W. Wise 1, 2 A. W. Gunst 1 G. Heald 1 J. P. Mckean 1 J. W. T. Hessels 3 A. G. de Bruyn 4 R. Nijboer J. Swinbank 2 R. Fallows 5 M. Brentjens 1 A. Nelles 6 R. Beck 7 H. Falcke 6, 8, 1 R. Fender 9 J. Hörandel L. V. E. Koopmans G. Mann 10 G. Miley H. Röttgering 11 B. W. Stappers 12 R. A. M. J. Wijers 2 S. Zaroubi M. van Den Akker A. Alexov 1 J. Anderson 13 K. Anderson A. van Ardenne M. Arts 14 A. Asgekar 1 I. M. Avruch 15 F. Batejat 13 L. Bähren 2 M. E. Bell 9 M. R. Bell 9 I. van Bemmel P. Bennema M. J. Bentum 1 G. Bernardi 16 P. Best 17 L. Bîrzan A. Bonafede 18 A. -J. Boonstra 1 R. Braun 19 J. Bregman 1 F. Breitling 20 R. H. van de Brink J. Broderick 9 P. C. Broekema W. N. Brouw 21 M. Brüggen 18 H. R. Butcher 1 W. van Cappellen 22 B. Ciardi 13 T. Coenen 1 J. Conway A. Coolen 23 A. Corstanje S. Damstra O. Davies A. T. Deller R. -J. Dettmar G. van Diepen K. Dijkstra 24 P. Donker A. Doorduin J. Dromer M. Drost A. van Duin J. Eislöffel 25 J. van Enst C. Ferrari 26 W. Frieswijk H. Gankema M. A. Garrett 11, 1 F. de Gasperin M. Gerbers 1 E. de Geus 27 Jean-Mathias Grießmeier 28 T. Grit P. Gruppen J. P. Hamaker T. Hassall 12 M. Hoeft 25 H. Holties 1 A. Horneffer A. van der Horst A. van Houwelingen 29 A. Huijgen M. Iacobelli 30, 31 H. Intema N. Jackson V. Jelic 4 A. de Jong 1 E. Juette 32 D. Kant A. Karastergiou 33 A. Koers 34 H. Kollen V. I. Kondratiev 1 E. Kooistra Y. Koopman A. Koster M. Kuniyoshi 8 M. Kramer 35 G. Kuper 1 P. Lambropoulos 36, 37 C. Law 2 J. van Leeuwen 3 J. Lemaitre M. Loose 38 P. Maat 1 G. Macario S. Markoff 2 J. Masters 39 D. Mckay-Bukowski 40 H. Meijering H. Meulman 1 M. Mevius 1 E. Middelberg R. Millenaar J. C. A. Miller-Jones 2 R. N. Mohan 41 J. D. Mol 42 J. Morawietz R. Morganti 21, 43 D. D. Mulcahy E. Mulder 44 H. Munk 1 L. Nieuwenhuis R. van Nieuwpoort J. E. Noordam 1 M. Norden A. Noutsos 8 A. R. Offringa H. Olofsson 45 A. Omar 1, 46 E. Orrú R. Overeem H. Paas 1 M. Pandey-Pommier 47 V. N. Pandey R. Pizzo 1 A. Polatidis 1 D. Rafferty 48 S. Rawlings W. Reich 8 J. -P. de Reijer J. Reitsma 49 A. Renting P. Riemers E. Rol 2 J. W. Romein J. Roosjen M. Ruiter A. Scaife 50 K. van der Schaaf B. Scheers 2 P. Schellart 6 A. Schoenmakers G. Schoonderbeek M. Serylak 28, 51 A. Shulevski J. Sluman 1 O. Smirnov 52 C. Sobey 8 H. Spreeuw 2 M. Steinmetz C. G. M. Sterks 53 H. -J. Stiepel K. Stuurwold Michel Tagger 28 Y. Tang 54 C. Tasse 55, 52 I. Thomas 56 S. Thoudam 6 M. C. Toribio 57 B. van der Tol O. Usov M. van Veelen A. -J. van der Veen 58 S. ter Veen 59 J. P. W. Verbiest 8 R. Vermeulen N. Vermaas C. Vocks C. Vogt M. de Vos E. van der Wal R. van Weeren 1, 60 H. Weggemans P. Weltevrede 12 S. White S. J. Wijnholds 1 T. Wilhelmsson O. Wucknitz 61 S. Yatawatta 21 P. Zarka 62 A. Zensus J. van Zwieten
Abstract : LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed throughout Germany, and one station has been built in each of France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR achieves unparalleled sensitivity and angular resolution in the low-frequency radio regime. The LOFAR facilities are jointly operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation, as an observatory open to the global astronomical community. LOFAR is one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. LOFAR's new capabilities, techniques and modus operandi make it an important pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We give an overview of the LOFAR instrument, its major hardware and software components, and the core science objectives that have driven its design. In addition, we present a selection of new results from the commissioning phase of this new radio observatory.
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M. P. van Haarlem, M. W. Wise, A. W. Gunst, G. Heald, J. P. Mckean, et al.. LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics, IOP Publishing, 2013, A2, 53 p. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201220873⟩. ⟨insu-01288431⟩

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