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LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray

M. P. van Haarlem 1 M. W. Wise 1, 2 A. W. Gunst 1 G. Heald 1 J. P. Mckean 1 J. W. T. Hessels 3 A. G. de Bruyn 1 R. Nijboer J. Swinbank 2 R. Fallows 4 M. Brentjens 1 A. Nelles 5 R. Beck 6 H. Falcke 5, 7, 1 R. Fender 8 J. Hörandel L. V. E. Koopmans G. Mann 9 G. Miley H. Röttgering 10 B. W. Stappers 11 R. A. M. J. Wijers 2 S. Zaroubi M. van Den Akker A. Alexov 1 J. Anderson 12 K. Anderson A. van Ardenne M. Arts 13 A. Asgekar 1 I. M. Avruch 14 F. Batejat 12 L. Bähren 2 M. E. Bell 8 M. R. Bell 8 I. van Bemmel P. Bennema M. J. Bentum 1 G. Bernardi P. Best 15 L. Bîrzan A. Bonafede 16 A. -J. Boonstra 1 R. Braun 17 J. Bregman 1 F. Breitling 9 R. H. van de Brink J. Broderick 8 P. C. Broekema W. N. Brouw 18 M. Brüggen 16 H. R. Butcher 1 W. van Cappellen 19 B. Ciardi 12 T. Coenen 1 J. Conway A. Coolen 20 A. Corstanje S. Damstra O. Davies A. T. Deller R. -J. Dettmar G. van Diepen K. Dijkstra 21 P. Donker A. Doorduin J. Dromer M. Drost A. van Duin J. Eislöffel 22 J. van Enst C. Ferrari 23 W. Frieswijk H. Gankema M. A. Garrett 10, 1 F. de Gasperin M. Gerbers 1 E. de Geus 24 Jean-Mathias Griessmeier 25 T. Grit P. Gruppen J. P. Hamaker T. Hassall 11 M. Hoeft 22 H. Holties 1 A. Horneffer A. van Der Horst A. van Houwelingen 26 A. Huijgen M. Iacobelli 27, 28 H. Intema N. Jackson V. Jelic 29 A. de Jong 1 E. Juette 30 D. Kant A. Karastergiou 31 A. Koers 32 H. Kollen V. I. Kondratiev 1 E. Kooistra y. Koopman A. Koster M. Kuniyoshi 7 M. Kramer 33 G. Kuper 1 P. Lambropoulos 1 C. Law 2 J. van Leeuwen 3 J. Lemaitre M. Loose 34 P. Maat 1 G. Macario S. Markoff 2 J. Masters 35 D. Mckay-Bukowski 36 H. Meijering H. Meulman 1 M. Mevius 1 E. Middelberg R. Millenaar J. C. A. Miller-Jones 2 R. N. Mohan 37 J. D. Mol 38 J. Morawietz R. Morganti 18, 1 D. D. Mulcahy E. Mulder 39 H. Munk 1 L. Nieuwenhuis R. van Nieuwpoort J. E. Noordam 1 M. Norden A. Noutsos 7 A. R. Offringa H. Olofsson 40 A. Omar 1, 41 E. Orrú R. Overeem H. Paas 1 M. Pandey-Pommier 42 V. N. Pandey R. Pizzo 1 A. Polatidis 1 D. Rafferty 43 S. Rawlings W. Reich 7 J. -P. de Reijer J. Reitsma 44 A. Renting P. Riemers E. Rol 2 J. W. Romein J. Roosjen M. Ruiter A. Scaife 45 K. van Der Schaaf B. Scheers 2 P. Schellart 5 A. Schoenmakers G. Schoonderbeek M. Serylak 25, 46 A. Shulevski J. Sluman 1 O. Smirnov 47 C. Sobey 7 H. Spreeuw 2 M. Steinmetz C. G. M. Sterks 48 H. -J. Stiepel K. Stuurwold Michel Tagger 25 y. Tang 49 C. Tasse 50 I. Thomas 51 S. Thoudam 5 M. C. Toribio 52 B. van Der Tol O. Usov M. van Veelen A. -J. van Der Veen 53 S. ter Veen 54 J. P. W. Verbiest 7 R. Vermeulen N. Vermaas C. Vocks C. Vogt M. de Vos E. van Der Wal R. van Weeren 1, 55 H. Weggemans P. Weltevrede 11 S. White S. J. Wijnholds 1 T. Wilhelmsson O. Wucknitz 56 S. yatawatta 18 P. Zarka 50 A. Zensus J. van Zwieten 
Abstract : LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed throughout Germany, and one station has been built in each of France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR achieves unparalleled sensitivity and angular resolution in the low-frequency radio regime. The LOFAR facilities are jointly operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation, as an observatory open to the global astronomical community. LOFAR is one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. LOFAR's new capabilities, techniques and modus operandi make it an important pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We give an overview of the LOFAR instrument, its major hardware and software components, and the core science objectives that have driven its design. In addition, we present a selection of new results from the commissioning phase of this new radio observatory.
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M. P. van Haarlem, M. W. Wise, A. W. Gunst, G. Heald, J. P. Mckean, et al.. LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2013, A2, 53 p. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201220873⟩. ⟨insu-01288431⟩



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