C. Barthe, Tracers transport by a mesoscale convective system over West Africa Arakawa, A.: The cumulus parameterization problem: Past, present and future, J. Climate, vol.17, pp.2493-2525, 2004.

J. Arteta, V. Marécal, and E. D. Andrivì-ere, Regional modelling of tracer transport by tropical convection ? Part 1: Sensitivity to convection parameterization, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.95194, pp.7081-710010, 2009.

G. Barnes and K. Sieckman, The Environment of Fast- and Slow-Moving Tropical Mesoscale Convective Cloud Lines, Monthly Weather Review, vol.112, issue.9, pp.1782-1794, 1984.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<1782:TEOFAS>2.0.CO;2

B. Barret, P. Ricaud, C. Mari, J. Attié, N. Bousserez et al., Transport pathways of CO in the African upper troposphere during the monsoon season: a study based upon the assimilation of spaceborne observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.85194, pp.3231-324610, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00330609

B. Barret, J. E. Williams, I. Bouarar, X. Yang, B. Josse et al., Impact of West African Monsoon convective transport and lightning NO x production upon the upper tropospheric composition: a multi-model study, Atmos . Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.5719-573810, 2010.

M. C. Barth, S. Kim, C. Wang, K. E. Pickering, L. E. Ott et al., Cloud-scale model intercomparison of chemical constituent transport in deep convection, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.75194, pp.4709-473110, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328530

C. Barthe and M. C. Barth, Evaluation of a new lightning-produced NO<sub>x</sub> parameterization for cloud resolving models and its associated uncertainties, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.8, issue.16, pp.4691-4710, 2008.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-8-4691-2008

C. Barthe and J. Pinty, Simulation of a supercellular storm using a three-dimensional mesoscale model with an explicit lightning flash scheme, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.96, issue.D10, pp.10-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JD007484

C. Barthe, N. Asencio, J. Lafore, M. Chong, B. Campistron et al., Multi-scale analysis of the 25?27 convective period over Niamey: Comparison between Doppler radar observations and cloud-resolving simulations, Q, J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc, issue.S1, pp.136-191, 2006.

P. Bechtold, E. Bazile, F. Guichard, P. Mascart, R. et al., A mass-flux convection scheme for regional and global models, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.43, issue.573, pp.869-886, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712757309

G. J. Berry and C. Thorncroft, Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave, Monthly Weather Review, vol.133, issue.4, pp.752-766, 2005.
DOI : 10.1175/MWR2884.1

S. Borrmann, D. Kunkel, R. Weigel, A. Minikin, T. Deshler et al., Aerosols in the tropical and subtropical UT/LS: in-situ measurements of submicron particle abundance and volatility, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.5573-559210, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00433492

P. Bougeault and P. Lacarrère, Parameterization of Orography-Induced Turbulence in a Mesobeta--Scale Model, Monthly Weather Review, vol.117, issue.8, pp.1872-1890, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<1872:POOITI>2.0.CO;2

G. Caniaux, J. Redelsperger, and J. Lafore, A Numerical Study of the Stratiform Region of a Fast-Moving Squall Line. Part I: General Description and Water and Heat Budgets, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.51, issue.14, pp.2046-2074, 1994.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<2046:ANSOTS>2.0.CO;2

J. Chaboureau and P. Bechtold, Statistical representation of clouds in a regional model, and the impact on the diurnal cycle of convection during TROCCINOX, J. Geophys. Res, pp.10-1029, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00068822

J. Chaboureau, J. Cammas, P. Mascart, J. Pinty, C. Claud et al., Evaluation of a cloud system life-cycle simulated by the Meso-NH model during FASTEX using METEOSAT radiances and TOVS-3I cloud retrievals, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.16, issue.566, pp.1735-1750, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712656609

J. Chaboureau, J. Cammas, P. Mascart, J. Pinty, and J. Lafore, Mesoscale model cloud scheme assessment using satellite observations, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.55, issue.D16, pp.10-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2001JD000714

R. Chatfield and P. Crutzen, Sulfur dioxide in remote oceanic air: Cloud transport of reactive precursors, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.38, issue.D5, pp.7111-7132, 1984.
DOI : 10.1029/JD089iD05p07111

F. Chauvin, R. Roehrig, and J. Lafore, Intraseasonal Variability of the Saharan Heat Low and Its Link with Midlatitudes, Journal of Climate, vol.23, issue.10, pp.2544-2561, 2010.
DOI : 10.1175/2010JCLI3093.1

M. Chong, . Amma, Q. J. Sop, and . Roy, The 11 August 2006 squall-line system as observed from MIT Doppler radar during the AMMA SOP, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.105, issue.s1, pp.209-226, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.466

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00986929

M. Chong, P. Amayenc, G. Scialom, and J. Testud, A Tropical Squall Line Observed during the COPT 81 Experiment in West Africa. Part 1: Kinematic Structure Inferred from Dual-Doppler Radar Data, Monthly Weather Review, vol.115, issue.3, pp.670-694, 1987.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<0670:ATSLOD>2.0.CO;2

D. Cohan, M. Schultz, D. Jacob, B. Heikes, and D. Blake, Convective injection and photochemical decay of peroxides in the tropical upper troposphere: Methyl iodide as a tracer of marine convection, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.102, issue.D5, pp.5717-5724, 1999.
DOI : 10.1029/98JD01963

W. Collins, D. Stevenson, C. Johnson, and R. Derwent, Role of convection in determining the budget of odd hydrogen in the upper troposphere, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.5, issue.D21, pp.26927-26941, 1999.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JD900143

C. Delon, C. E. Reeves, D. J. Stewart, D. Serça, R. Dupont et al., Biogenic nitrogen oxide emissions from soils &ndash; impact on NO<sub>x</sub> and ozone over West Africa during AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Experiment): modelling study, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.8, issue.9, pp.2351-236310, 2008.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-8-2351-2008

R. Dickerson, G. Huffman, W. Luke, L. Nunnermacker, K. Pickering et al., Thunderstorms: An Important Mechanism in the Transport of Air Pollutants, Science, vol.235, issue.4787, pp.460-465, 1987.
DOI : 10.1126/science.235.4787.460

R. M. Doherty, D. S. Stevenson, W. J. Collins, and M. G. Sanderson, Influence of convective transport on tropospheric ozone and its precursors in a chemistry-climate model, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.55194, pp.3205-321810, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00295795

J. Gamache and J. R. Houze, Mesoscale Air Motions Associated with a Tropical Squall Line, Monthly Weather Review, vol.110, issue.2, pp.118-135, 1982.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<0118:MAMAWA>2.0.CO;2

A. Gettelman, M. Salby, and F. Sassi, Distribution and influence of convection in the tropical tropopause region, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.14, issue.3, pp.1010-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2001JD001048

D. Grant, J. Fuentes, M. Delonge, S. Chan, E. Joseph et al., Ozone transport by mesoscale convective storms in western Senegal, Atmospheric Environment, vol.42, issue.30, pp.7104-7114, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.05.044

D. Gregory, J. Morcrette, C. Jakob, A. M. Beljaars, T. Stockdale et al., Revision of convection, radiation and cloud schemes in the ECMWF integrated forecasting system, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.52, issue.566, pp.1685-1710, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712656607

A. Guenther, N. Hewitt, C. Erickson, D. Fall, R. Geron et al., A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.93, issue.3, pp.8873-889210, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/94JD02950

C. D. Homan, C. M. Volk, A. C. Kuhn, A. Werner, J. Baehr et al., Tracer measurements in the tropical tropopause layer during the AMMA/SCOUT- O3 aircraft campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.3615-362710, 2010.

R. A. Houze, S. A. Rutledge, M. I. Biggerstafff, and B. F. Smull, Interpretation of Doppler Weather Radar Displays of Midlatitude Mesoscale Convective Systems, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.70, issue.6, pp.613-654, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(1989)070<0608:IODWRD>2.0.CO;2

X. Hu, J. D. Fuentes, and F. Zhang, Downward transport and modification of tropospheric ozone through moist convection, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol.60, issue.151, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s10874-010-9179-5

L. Jaeglé, D. Jacob, P. Wennberg, C. Spivakovsky, T. Hanisco et al., in the upper troposphere suggest a major source from convective injection of peroxides, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.52, issue.108, pp.3181-3184, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/97GL03004

L. Jaeglé, R. V. Martin, K. Chance, L. Steinberger, T. P. Kurosu et al., Satellite mapping of rain-induced nitric oxide emissions from soils, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.104, issue.4, p.2131010, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2004JD004787

S. Khaykin, J. Pommereau, L. Korshunov, V. Yushkov, J. Nielsen et al., Hydration of the lower stratosphere by ice crystal geysers over land convective systems, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.95194, pp.2275-228710, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00371929

J. Lafore and M. W. Moncrieff, A numerical investigation of the organization and interaction of the convective and stratiform regions of tropical squall lines, J. Atmos. Sci, vol.46, pp.521-544, 1989.

J. P. Lafore, J. Stein, N. Asencio, P. Bougeault, V. Ducrocq et al., The Meso-NH Atmospheric Simulation System. Part I: adiabatic formulation and control simulations, Annales Geophysicae, vol.16, issue.1, pp.90-10910, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s00585-997-0090-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00329074

A. G. Laing and J. M. Fritsch, Mesoscale Convective Complexes in Africa, Monthly Weather Review, vol.121, issue.8, pp.2254-2263, 1993.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<2254:MCCIA>2.0.CO;2

A. G. Laing, R. Carbone, V. Levizzani, J. Tuttle, Q. J. Africa et al., The propagation and diurnal cycles of deep convection in northern tropical Africa, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.129, issue.189, pp.93-109, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.194

C. Lavaysse, C. Flamant, S. Janicot, D. J. Parker, J. P. Lafore et al., Seasonal evolution of the West African heat low: a climatological perspective, Climate Dynamics, vol.11, issue.555, pp.313-33010, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00382-009-0553-4

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00383908

C. Lavaysse, C. Flamant, S. Janicot, and P. Knippertz, Links between African easterly waves, midlatitude circulation and intraseasonal pulsations of the West African heat low, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.132, issue.s1, pp.141-15810, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.555

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00450863

K. S. Law, F. Fierli, F. Cairo, H. Schlager, S. Borrmann et al., Air mass origins influencing TTL chemical composition over West Africa during 2006 summer monsoon, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.10753-1077010, 2010.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-10-10753-2010

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00495053

M. G. Lawrence, R. Von-kuhlmann, M. Salzmann, R. , and P. J. , The balance of effects of deep convective mixing on tropospheric ozone, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.33, issue.D9, pp.10-1029, 1940.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JD002893

J. Lelieveld and P. Crutzen, Role of Deep Cloud Convection in the Ozone Budget of the Troposphere, Science, vol.264, issue.5166, pp.1759-1761, 1994.
DOI : 10.1126/science.264.5166.1759

C. Liu, M. W. Moncrieff, and W. W. Grabowski, Explicit and Parameterized Realizations of Convective Cloud Systems in TOGA COARE, Monthly Weather Review, vol.129, issue.7, pp.1698-1703, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<1689:EAPROC>2.0.CO;2

J. Lopez, A. Fridlind, H. Jost, M. Loewenstein, A. Ackerman et al., CO signatures in subtropical convective clouds and anvils during CRYSTAL-FACE: An analysis of convective transport and entrainment using observations and a cloud-resolving model, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.31, issue.D7, p.930510, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2005JD006104

R. Lu, C. Lin, R. Turco, and A. Arakawa, Cumulus transport of chemical tracers: 1. Cloud-resolving model simulations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.105, issue.D8, pp.10001-10021, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JD900009

C. Mari, D. Jacob, and P. Bechtold, Transport and scavenging of soluble gases in a deep convective cloud, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.98, issue.D17, pp.22255-22263, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JD900211

C. Mari, C. Saut, D. Jacob, A. Staudt, M. Avery et al., On the relative role of convection, chemistry, and transport over the South Pacific Convergence Zone during PEM-Tropics B: A case study, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.56, issue.D13, p.823210, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2001JD001466

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00138895

. Barthe, Atmospheric composition of West Africa: highlights from the AMMA international program, Atmos. Sci. Lett, vol.12, 2010.

V. Masson, A physically-based scheme for the urban energy balance in atmospheric models, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol.94, issue.3, pp.357-397, 2000.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1002463829265

J. L. Mcbride, W. M. Gray, and . Roy, Mass divergence in tropical weather systems Paper II: Large-scale controls on convection, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.106, issue.449, pp.517-538, 1979.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49710644909

A. Minga, V. Thouret, M. Saunois, C. Delon, D. Serça et al., What caused extreme ozone concentrations over Cotonou in, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.895-90710, 2005.

K. I. Mohr, J. S. Famiglietti, and E. J. Zipser, The Contribution to Tropical Rainfall with respect to Convective System Type, Size, and Intensity Estimated from the 85-GHz Ice-Scattering Signature, Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol.38, issue.5, pp.596-606, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<0596:TCTTRW>2.0.CO;2

G. L. Mullendore, D. R. Durran, and J. R. Holton, Crosstropopause tracer transport in midlatitude convection, J. Geophys . Res, vol.110, pp.10-1029, 2005.

J. Neelin, O. Peters, J. Lin, K. Hales, and C. Holloway, Rethinking convective quasi-equilibrium: observational constraints for stochastic convective schemes in climate models, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.33, issue.23, pp.2579-2602, 2008.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.2347

J. Noilhan and S. Planton, A Simple Parameterization of Land Surface Processes for Meteorological Models, Monthly Weather Review, vol.117, issue.3, pp.536-549, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<0536:ASPOLS>2.0.CO;2

M. Parker and R. Johnson, Structures and Dynamics of Quasi-2D Mesoscale Convective Systems, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.61, issue.5, pp.545-567, 2004.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0545:SADOQM>2.0.CO;2

D. J. Parker, R. R. Burton, A. Diongue-niang, R. J. Ellis, M. Felton et al., The diurnal cycle of the West African monsoon circulation, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.129, issue.611, pp.2839-2860, 2005.
DOI : 10.1256/qj.04.52

J. Pinty and P. Jabouille, A mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in mesoscale non hydrostatic model: simulations of a squall line and of orographic precipitations, paper presented at Conference of Cloud Physics, 1998.

M. Prather and D. Jacob, A persistent imbalance in HOx and NOx photochemistry of the upper troposphere driven by deep tropical convection, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.24, issue.24, pp.10-1029, 1997.

J. Prospero and P. Lamb, African Droughts and Dust Transport to the Caribbean: Climate Change Implications, Science, vol.302, issue.5647, pp.1024-1026, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1089915

D. Randall, M. Khairoutdinov, A. Arakawa, and W. Grabowski, Breaking the Cloud Parameterization Deadlock, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.84, issue.11, pp.1547-1564, 2003.
DOI : 10.1175/BAMS-84-11-1547

E. Real, E. Orlandi, K. S. Law, F. Fierli, D. Josset et al., Cross-hemispheric transport of central African biomass burning pollutants: implications for downwind ozone production, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.3027-304610, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00410675

J. Redelsperger and J. Lafore, A Three-Dimensional Simulation of a Tropical Squall Line: Convective Organization and Thermodynamic Vertical Transport, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.45, issue.8, pp.1334-1356, 1988.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<1334:ATDSOA>2.0.CO;2

J. Redelsperger, A. Diongue, A. Diedhiou, J. Ceron, M. Diop et al., Multi-scale description of a Sahelian synoptic weather system representative of the West African monsoon, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.105, issue.582, pp.1229-1257, 2002.
DOI : 10.1256/003590002320373274

J. Redelsperger, D. Thorncroft, A. Diedhiou, T. Lebel, D. Parker et al., African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis: An International Research Project and Field Campaign, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.87, issue.12, pp.1739-1746, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/BAMS-87-12-1739

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00385875

F. Roux, The West African Squall Line Observed on 23 June 1981 during COPT 81: Kinematics and Thermodynamics of the Convective Region, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.45, issue.3, pp.406-426, 1988.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<0406:TWASLO>2.0.CO;2

F. Roux and J. Sun, Single-Doppler Observations of a West African Squall Line on 27-28 May 1981 during COPT 81: Kinematics, Thermodynamics and Water Budget, Monthly Weather Review, vol.118, issue.9, pp.1826-1854, 1990.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<1826:SDOOAW>2.0.CO;2

F. Roux, J. Testud, M. Payen, and B. Pinty, West African Squall-Line Thermodynamic Structure Retrieved from Dual-Doppler Radar Observations, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.41, issue.21, pp.3104-3121, 1984.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1984)041<3104:WASLTS>2.0.CO;2

P. Ruti, J. Williams, F. Hourdin, F. Guichard, A. Boone et al., The West African climate system: a review of the AMMA model inter-comparison initiatives, Atmospheric Science Letters, vol.35, issue.17, pp.116-122, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/asl.305

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00570059

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, S. English, P. Bauer et al., RTTOV-8 Science and validation report, Nwp saf rep, 2005.

M. Saunois, C. Mari, V. Thouret, J. Cammas, P. Peyrillé et al., An idealized two-dimensional approach to study the impact of the West African monsoon on the meridional gradient of tropospheric ozone, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.125, issue.D9, p.730610, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2007JD008707

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00282388

J. R. Scala, M. Garstang, W. K. Tao, K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson et al., Cloud draft structure and trace gas transport, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.105, issue.D10, pp.17015-17030, 1990.
DOI : 10.1029/JD095iD10p17015

J. Schwendike, N. Kalthoff, and M. Kohler, The impact of mesoscale convective systems on the surface and boundarylayer structure in West Africa: Case-studies from the AMMA campaign, J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc, vol.136599, pp.566-58210, 2006.

D. Serça, R. Delmas, X. Leroux, D. Parsons, M. Scholes et al., Comparison of nitrogen monoxide emissions from several African tropical ecosystems and influence of season and fire, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.218, issue.4, pp.637-651, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/98GB02737

A. Thompson, W. Tao, K. E. Pickering, J. R. Scala, and J. Simpson, Tropical Deep Convection and Ozone Formation , B. Am, Meteorol. Soc, vol.782, pp.1043-1054, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<1043:tdcaof>2.0.co;2

H. Tost, P. Jöckel, and J. Lelieveld, Influence of different convection parameterisations in a GCM, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.6, issue.12, pp.5475-549310, 2006.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-6-5475-2006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00296090

H. Tost, M. G. Lawrence, C. Brühl, and P. Jöckel, The GABRIEL Team, and The SCOUT-O3-DARWIN/ACTIVE Team: Uncertainties in atmospheric chemistry modelling due to convection parameterisations and subsequent scavenging, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.1931-195110, 1931.

P. Tulet, K. Crahan-kaku, M. Leriche, B. Aouizerats, C. et al., Mixing of dust aerosols into a mesoscale convective system, Atmospheric Research, vol.96, issue.2-3, pp.302-314, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.09.011

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00987566

Y. A. Wang, W. Desilva, G. C. Goldenbaum, and R. R. Dickerson, Nitric oxide production by simulated lightning: Dependence on current, energy, and pressure, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.29, issue.D15, pp.19149-19159, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/98JD01356

K. Yasunaga, H. Kidan, T. Satomura, and N. Nishi, A Numerical Study on the Detrainment of Tracers by Cumulus Convection in TOGA COARE, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, vol.82, issue.3, pp.861-878, 2004.
DOI : 10.2151/jmsj.2004.861

E. J. Zipser, Mesoscale and Convective???Scale Downdrafts as Distinct Components of Squall-Line Structure, Monthly Weather Review, vol.105, issue.12, pp.1568-1589, 1977.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1977)105<1568:MACDAD>2.0.CO;2