Galactic Cosmic Ray–Induced Radiation Dose on Terrestrial Exoplanets

Abstract : This past decade has seen tremendous advancements in the study of extrasolar planets. Observations are now made with increasing sophistication from both ground- and space-based instruments, and exoplanets are characterized with increasing precision. There is a class of particularly interesting exoplanets that reside in the habitable zone, which is defined as the area around a star where the planet is capable of supporting liquid water on its surface. Planetary systems around M dwarfs are considered to be prime candidates to search for life beyond the Solar System. Such planets are likely to be tidally locked and have close-in habitable zones. Theoretical calculations also suggest that close-in exoplanets are more likely to have weaker planetary magnetic fields, especially in the case of super-Earths. Such exoplanets are subjected to a high flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) due to their weak magnetic moments. GCRs are energetic particles of astrophysical origin that strike the planetary atmosphere and produce secondary particles, including muons, which are highly penetrating. Some of these particles reach the planetary surface and contribute to the radiation dose. Along with the magnetic field, another factor governing the radiation dose is the depth of the planetary atmosphere. The higher the depth of the planetary atmosphere, the lower the flux of secondary particles will be on the surface. If the secondary particles are energetic enough, and their flux is sufficiently high, the radiation from muons can also impact the subsurface regions, such as in the case of Mars. If the radiation dose is too high, the chances of sustaining a long-term biosphere on the planet are very low. We have examined the dependence of the GCR-induced radiation dose on the strength of the planetary magnetic field and its atmospheric depth, and found that the latter is the decisive factor for the protection of a planetary biosphere. Key Words: RadiationRadiation physicsHabitabilityHabitable zonePlanetary atmospheres.
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Astrobiology, Mary Ann Liebert, 2013, 13 (10), pp. 910-919. 〈10.1089/ast.2013.1052〉
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Dimitra Atri, B. Hariharan, Jean-Mathias Grießmeier. Galactic Cosmic Ray–Induced Radiation Dose on Terrestrial Exoplanets. Astrobiology, Mary Ann Liebert, 2013, 13 (10), pp. 910-919. 〈10.1089/ast.2013.1052〉. 〈insu-01258020〉

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