Phytoremediation of polluted soils : recent progress and developments.: Phytostabilisation of a copper contaminated topsoil aided by basic slags: assessment ofCu mobility and phytoavailability

Abstract : PurposeBasic slags are alkaline by-products of the steel industry with potential properties to ameliorate nutrient supply and metal stabilisation in contaminated soils. This study aimed at investigating the potential of a P-spiked Link Donawitz slag and a conventional basic slag called Carmeuse for the aided phytostabilisation of a Cu-contaminated soil at a wood treatment site. The effects of basic slag addition on Cu fractionation, mobility and (phyto) availability were assessed.Materials and methodsBoth slags were incorporated at 1 % w/w into the Cu-contaminated soil phytostabilised with Cu-tolerant plants, using either outdoor lysimeters or a field plot. Untreated soil (UNT), amended soils with the P-spiked Link Donawitz slag (PLDS) and the conventional slag (CARM) respectively, and a control soil (CTRL) were sampled, potted and cultivated with dwarf bean. Physico-chemical analysis, determination of total soil elements and a Cu-sequential extraction scheme were carried out for all soils. Physico-chemical characteristics of soil pore water and Cu speciation (rhizon, ion selective electrode and diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT)) were determined. Shoot dry weight yield and leaf ionome (i.e. all inorganic ions present in the primary leaves) of dwarf beans were investigated.Results and discussionThe slag incorporation at only 1 % w/w increased the soil pH from 1.5 to 2 U and electrical conductivity in soil pore water by three times. The residual Cu fraction increased for both slag amended soils compared to the UNT soil by six times in parallel to the decrease of the Cu oxidisable fraction (1.5 times) and to a less extent the reducible fraction. The incorporation of both slags did not reduce the total dissolved Cu concentration in the soil pore water but significantly reduced the real dissolved Cu concentration ca five times, the Cu labile pool as measured by DGT (at least two times) and the Cu phytoavailability. The dwarf bean total biomass was also improved with the slag addition especially for the P-spiked Linz–Donawitz slag.ConclusionsThe addition of both slags in the contaminated soil increased Cu concentration in the residual fraction and thus reduced its potential mobility. Though the total dissolved Cu soil pore water concentration remained identical, its speciation changed as the real dissolved fraction diminished and lowered the Cu bioavailability. The addition of small amount of P-spiked Linz–Donawitz and Carmeuse slags was beneficial for this Cu-contaminated soil in the context of aided phytostabilisation.
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Lydie Le Forestier, Mikael Motelica-Heino, Philippe Le Coustumer, Michel Mench. Phytoremediation of polluted soils : recent progress and developments.: Phytostabilisation of a copper contaminated topsoil aided by basic slags: assessment ofCu mobility and phytoavailability. Journal of Soils and Sediments, Springer Verlag, 2017, 17, pp.1262-1271. ⟨10.1007/s11368-015-1299-8⟩. ⟨insu-01234322⟩

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