J. J. Berthelier, M. Godefroy, F. Leblanc, E. Seran, D. Peschard et al., IAP, the thermal plasma analyzer on DEMETER, IAP, the thermal plasma analyzer on DEMETER, pp.487-501, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.018

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00155500

D. Bilitza, International Reference Ionosphere 2000, Radio Science, vol.18, issue.6, pp.261-275, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/2000RS002432

M. J. Bolzan, F. Becker-guedes, P. R. Fagundes, Y. Sahai, V. G. Pillat et al., Statistical analysis of the total electron content observed at 23??S in the Brazilian sector, Advances in Space Research, vol.44, issue.3, pp.385-394, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2009.03.012

V. Depuev and T. Zelenova, Electron density profile changes in a pre-earthquake period, Advances in Space Research, vol.18, issue.6, pp.115-118, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0273-1177(95)00911-6

M. Devi, A. K. Barbara, A. Depueva, and V. Depuev, Preliminary results of TEC measurements in Guwahati, India, Advances in Space Research, vol.42, issue.4, pp.753-756, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2008.01.020

I. R. Dobrovolsky, S. I. Zubkov, and V. I. Myachkin, Estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones, Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH, vol.70, issue.No. 10, pp.1025-1044, 1979.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00876083

M. B. Gokhberg, V. A. Pilipenko, and O. A. Pokhotelov, Satellite observation of the electromagnetic radiation above the epicenteral region of an incipient earthquake, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR+, Earth Sci. Ser, vol.268, issue.1, pp.5-7, 1983.

M. N. Gousheva, R. P. Glavcheva, D. L. Danov, P. L. Hristov, B. B. Kirov et al., Electric field and ion density anomalies in the mid latitude ionosphere: Possible connection with earthquakes?, Advances in Space Research, vol.42, issue.1, pp.206-212, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2008.01.015

M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, Seismo-Electromagnetics: Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling, p.477, 2002.

V. P. Kim, V. V. Hegai, and P. V. Illich-svitych, On one possible ionospheric precursor of earthquakes, Physics of the Solid Earth, vol.30, pp.223-226, 1994.

J. P. Lebreton, S. Stverak, P. Travnicek, M. Maksimovic, D. Klinge et al., The ISL Langmuir probe experiment processing onboard DEMETER: Scientific objectives, description and first results, Planetary and Space Science, vol.54, issue.5, pp.472-486, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.017

J. Y. Liu, Y. J. Chuo, S. J. Shan, Y. B. Tsai, Y. I. Chen et al., Pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies registered by continuous GPS TEC measurements, Annales Geophysicae, vol.22, issue.5, pp.1585-1593, 1585.
DOI : 10.5194/angeo-22-1585-2004

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00317335

A. J. Mannucci, B. D. Wilson, D. N. Yuan, C. H. Ho, U. J. Lindqwister et al., A global mapping technique for GPS-derived ionospheric total electron content measurements, Radio Science, vol.95, issue.18, pp.565-58210, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/97RS02707

P. N. Mayaud, Derivation, Meaning and use of geomagnetic indices , Geophysical monograph, 1980.

A. A. Namgaladze, M. V. Klimenko, V. V. Klimenko, and I. E. Zakharenkova, Physical mechanism and mathematical modelling of earthquake ionospheric precursors registered in Total Electron Content, pp.252-262, 2009.

T. Ondoh, Investigation of precursory phenomena in the ionosphere, atmosphere and groundwater before large earthquakes of M>6.5, Advances in Space Research, vol.43, issue.2, pp.214-223, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2008.04.003

C. G. Park and M. Dejnakarintra, Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional mapping of ionospheric electric field, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.17, issue.A3, pp.960-964, 1973.
DOI : 10.1029/JA084iA03p00960

M. Parrot, Use of satellites to detect seismo-electromagnetic effects , Main phenomenological features of ionospheric precursors of strong earthquakes, Adv. Space Res, vol.15, issue.11, pp.1337-1347, 1995.

M. Parrot, J. J. Berthelier, J. P. Lebreton, J. A. Sauvaud, O. Santolik et al., Examples of unusual ionospheric observations made by the DEMETER satellite over seismic regions, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, vol.31, issue.4-9, pp.31-486, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pce.2006.02.011

S. A. Pulinets, K. A. Boyarchuk, V. V. Hegai, V. P. Kim, and A. M. Lomonosov, Quasielectrostatic model of atmosphere-thermosphere-ionosphere coupling, Advances in Space Research, vol.26, issue.8, pp.1209-1218, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0273-1177(99)01223-5

S. A. Pulinets and K. A. Boyarchuk, Ionospheric Precursors of Earthquakes, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00299217

S. A. Pulinets, A. D. Legen, T. V. Gaivoronskaya, and V. K. Depuev, Main phenomenological features of ionospheric precursors of strong earthquakes, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol.65, issue.16-18, pp.1337-1347, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jastp.2003.07.011

S. A. Pulinets, Physical mechanism of the vertical electric field generation over active tectonic faults, Advances in Space Research, vol.44, issue.6, pp.767-773, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2009.04.038

H. Rishbeth and M. Mendillo, Patterns of F2-layer variability, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol.63, issue.15, pp.1661-1680, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1364-6826(01)00036-0

E. Sardon, A. Rius, and N. Zarraoa, Estimation of the transmitter and receiver differential biases and the ionospheric total electron content from Global Positioning System observations, Radio Science, vol.29, issue.4, pp.577-586, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/94RS00449

S. Sarkar, A. K. Gwal, and M. Parrot, Ionospheric variations observed by the DEMETER satellite in the mid-latitude region during strong earthquakes, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol.69, issue.13, pp.1524-1540, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jastp.2007.06.006

K. Sharma, R. M. Das, R. S. Dabas, K. G. Pillai, S. C. Garg et al., Ionospheric precursors observed at low latitudes around the time of koyna earthquake, Advances in Space Research, vol.42, issue.7, pp.1238-1245, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2007.06.026

A. Tronin, M. Hayakawa, and O. A. Molchanov, Thermal IR satellite data application for earthquake research in Japan and China, Journal of Geodynamics, vol.33, issue.4-5, pp.519-534, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-3707(02)00013-3

B. Zhao, M. Wang, T. Yu, W. Wan, J. Lei et al., Is an unusual large enhancement of ionospheric electron density linked with the 2008 great Wenchuan earthquake?, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol.35, issue.A11, pp.1-6, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.06.003