K. M. Aggarwal, N. Nath, and C. S. Setty, Collision frequency and transport properties of electrons in the ionosphere, Planetary and Space Science, vol.27, issue.6, pp.753-768, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0032-0633(79)90004-7

R. N. Baulch and E. C. Butcher, Effective electron collision frequency measurements in the E- and F-regions, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.50, issue.1, pp.45-49, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(88)90007-4

J. J. Berthelier, ICE, the electric field experiment on DEMETER, Planetary and Space Science, vol.54, issue.5, pp.456-471, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.016

D. Bilitza, R. , and B. , International Reference Ionosphere 2007: Improvements and new parameters, Advances in Space Research, vol.42, issue.4, pp.599-609, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2007.07.048

K. G. Budden, The theory of radio windows in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.42, issue.3, pp.287-98, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(80)90036-7

K. G. Budden, The propagation of radio waves, 1985.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511564321

N. P. Danilkin, P. F. Denisenko, B. G. Barabashov, and G. G. Vertogradov, Electron collision frequency and HF waves attenuation in the ionosphere, International Journal of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, vol.8, issue.17, pp.10-1029, 2005.
DOI : 10.1029/2004GI000081

G. R. Ellis, The z propagation hole in the ionosphere, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.8, issue.1-2, p.243, 1956.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(56)90090-3

G. R. Ellis, Use of Z-Mode Propagation for observing Cosmic Radio Noise from Earth Satellites, Nature, vol.62, issue.4818, p.862, 0193.
DOI : 10.1038/193862a0

T. Farges, E. Blanc, and M. Tanguy, Experimental evidence of D region heating by lightning-induced electromagnetic pulses on MF radio links, J. Geophys. Res, pp.10-1029, 2007.

R. Gendrin, Le guidage des whistlers par le champ magnetique, Planetary and Space Science, vol.5, issue.4, p.274, 1962.
DOI : 10.1016/0032-0633(61)90096-4

P. Hansen, High power very low frequency/low frequency transmitting antennas, IEEE Conference on Military Communications, 1999.
DOI : 10.1109/MILCOM.1990.117581

R. A. Helliwell, Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena, 1965.

U. S. Inan, H. C. Chang, and R. A. , Electron precipitation zones around major ground-based VLF signal sources, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.14, issue.A5, pp.2981-2906, 1984.
DOI : 10.1029/JA089iA05p02891

U. S. Inan, H. C. Chang, R. A. Helliwell, W. L. Imhof, J. B. Reagan et al., Precipitation of radiation belt electrons by man-made waves: A comparison between theory and measurement, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol.65, issue.4955, pp.359-369, 1985.
DOI : 10.1029/JA090iA01p00359

U. S. Inan, VLF heating of the lower ionosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.300, issue.III, pp.729-732, 1990.
DOI : 10.1029/GL017i006p00729

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00329359

U. S. Inan, J. V. Rodriguez, S. Lev-tov, and J. Oh, ionospheric modification with a VLF transmitter, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.300, issue.14, pp.2071-2074, 1992.
DOI : 10.1029/92GL02378

U. S. Inan, J. V. Rodriguez, and V. P. Idone, VLF signatures of lightning-induced heating and ionization of the nighttime D-region, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.96, issue.21, pp.2355-2358, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/93GL02620

D. Jones, The second Z-propagation radio, Nature, pp.262-674, 1976.

S. Kuo, A. Snyder, P. Kossey, C. Chang, and J. Labenski, Beating HF waves to generate VLF waves in the ionosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol.47, issue.A3, pp.331810-1029, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(85)90085-6

F. Lefeuvre, R. Marshall, J. L. Pinçon, U. S. Inan, D. Lagoutte et al., On remote sensing of transient luminous event's parent lightning discharges by ELF/VLF wave measurements on board a satellite, J. Geophys. Res, vol.114, p.930310, 1029.

N. M. Maslin, Estimating Ionospheric Cross-Modulation, Proc. R. Soc. London A, pp.277-293, 1976.
DOI : 10.1098/rspa.1976.0142

R. C. Moore, S. Fujimaru, M. Cohen, M. Golkowski, and M. J. Mccarrick, On the altitude of the ELF/VLF source region generated during ???beat-wave??? HF heating experiments, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.31, issue.A11, pp.10-1029, 2012.
DOI : 10.1029/JA086iA11p09073

M. Parrot, U. S. Inan, N. G. Lethinen, and J. L. Pinçon, Penetration of lightning MF signals to the upper ionosphere over VLF ground-based transmitters, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol.16, issue.D1, pp.10-1029, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/BF03010026

J. A. Ratcliffe, The Magneto-Ionic Theory and Its Applications to the Ionosphere, 1959.

J. V. Rodriguez, Modification of the Earth's ionosphere by verylow-frequency transmitters, 1994.

J. V. Rodriguez and U. S. Inan, region due to heating by very-low-frequency transmitters, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.95, issue.485, pp.93-96, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/93GL03007

J. V. Rodriguez, U. S. Inan, and T. F. Bell, Heating of the nighttime D region by very low frequency transmitters, J. Geophys. Res, vol.99, issue.23, pp.329-23338, 1994.

J. A. Sauvaud, R. Maggiolo, C. Jacquey, M. Parrot, J. J. Berthelier et al., Radiation belt electron precipitation due to VLF transmitters: Satellite observations, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.83, issue.5, p.910110, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2008GL033194

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00283890

H. K. Sen and A. A. Wyller, On the generalization of the Appleton-Hartree magnetoionic formulas, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.44, issue.12, pp.3391-3950, 1960.
DOI : 10.1029/JZ065i012p03931

R. L. Smith and J. J. Angerami, Magnetospheric properties deduced from OGO 1 observations of ducted and nonducted whistlers, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.65, issue.1, pp.1-20, 1968.
DOI : 10.1029/JA073i001p00001

A. V. Strelstov, J. R. Woodroffe, and J. D. Huba, Propagation of whistler mode waves through the ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res, pp.10-1029, 2012.

J. R. Wait and K. P. Spies, Characteristics of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide for VLF radio waves, NSB Tech. Note U.S, vol.300, 1964.
DOI : 10.6028/NBS.TN.300