K. Abdrakhmatov, . Ye, S. A. Aldazhanov, B. H. Hager, M. W. Hamburger et al., Relatively recent construction of the Tien Shan inferred from GPS measurements of present-day crustal deformation rates, Nature, vol.384, issue.6608, pp.450-453, 1996.
DOI : 10.1038/384450a0

K. Y. Abdrakhmatov, K. D. Djanuzakov, and D. Delvaux, Active tectonics and seizmic hazard of the Issyk-Kul basin in the Kyrgyz Tian-Shan Lake Issyk-Kul: its natural environment, pp.147-160, 2002.

A. Abrajevitch, R. Van-der-voo, M. L. Bazhenov, N. M. Levashova, and P. J. Mccausland, The role of the Kazakhstan orocline in the late Paleozoic amalgamation of Eurasia, Tectonophysics, vol.455, issue.1-4, pp.61-76, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.05.006

D. V. Alexeiev, A. V. Ryazantsev, A. Kröner, A. A. Tretaykov, X. Xia et al., Geochemical data and zircon ages for rocks in a high-pressure belt of Chu-Yili Mountains, southern Kazakhstan: Implications for the earliest stages of accretion in Kazakhstan and the Tianshan, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.42, issue.5, pp.805-820, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2010.09.004

J. Cogné, V. A. Kravchinsky, N. Halim, and F. Hankard, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean demonstrated by new Mesozoic palaeomagnetic results from the Trans-Ba??kal area (SE Siberia), Geophysical Journal International, vol.163, issue.2, pp.813-832, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02782.x

F. Corfu, J. M. Hanchar, P. W. Hoskin, and P. Kinny, Atlas of Zircon Textures, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol.53, issue.1, pp.469-500, 2003.
DOI : 10.2113/0530469

F. De-corte, F. Bellemans, P. Van-den-haute, C. Ingelbrecht, and C. Nicholl, A new U doped glass certified by the European Commission for the calibration of fission-track dating Advances in fission-track geochronology, pp.67-78, 1998.

J. De-grave and P. Van-den-haute, Denudation and cooling of the Lake Teletskoye Region in the, 2002.

J. De-grave, M. M. Buslov, and P. Van-den-haute, Distant effects of India???Eurasia convergence and Mesozoic intracontinental deformation in Central Asia: Constraints from apatite fission-track thermochronology, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.29, issue.2-3, pp.188-204, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2006.03.001

J. De-grave, P. Van-den-haute, M. M. Buslov, B. Dehandschutter, and S. Glorie, Apatite fissiontrack thermochronology applied to the Chulyshman Plateau, Siberian Altai Region. Radiation De Grave, J., Buslov, M.M, 2008.

F. Multi-method-lisker, B. Ventura, and U. A. Glasmacher, Siberian Altai Mountains: new insights on its thermo-tectonic evolution Thermochronological methods: From paleotemperature Constraints to Landscape evolution models, pp.237-259

F. Vanhaeke and P. Van-den-haute, The thermo-tectonic history of the Song-Kul Plateau, Kyrgyz Tien Shan: constraints by apatite and titanite thermo-chronometry and zircon U, 2011.

J. De-grave, S. Glorie, F. I. Zhimulev, M. M. Buslov, M. Elburg et al., Emplacement and exhumation of the Kuznetsk-Alatau basement (Siberia): implications for the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and sediment supply to the Kuznetsk, Minusa and West Siberian Basins, Terra Nova, vol.306, issue.4, pp.248-256, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2011.01006.x

J. De-grave, S. Glorie, A. Ryabinin, F. Zhimulev, A. Izmer et al., Late Palaeozoic and Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the southern Kyrgyz Tien Shan: Constraints from multi-method thermochronology in the Trans-Alai, Turkestan-Alai segment and the southeastern Ferghana Basin, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.44, pp.149-168, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2011.04.019

K. E. Degtyarev, Tectonic evolution of Early Paleozoic island-arc systems and continental crust formation in the Caledonides of Kazakhstan and the North Tien Shan, Geotectonics, vol.45, issue.1, pp.23-50, 2011.
DOI : 10.1134/S0016852111010031

K. E. Degtyarev, K. N. Shatagin, A. B. Kotov, E. B. Sal-'nikova, M. V. Luchitskaya et al., Early Paleozoic granitoids of the Aqtau-Dzungar microcontinent (Central Kazakhstan), Early Paleozoic Granitoids of the Aqtau?Dzungar Microcontinent, pp.1204-1208, 2006.
DOI : 10.1134/S1028334X06080083

D. Delvaux, K. E. Abdrakhmatov, I. N. Lemzin, and A. L. Strom, Landslides and surface breaks of the 1911 M s 8.2 Kemin earthquake (Kyrgyzstan) Russian Geology and Geophysics, pp.1583-1592, 2001.

N. L. Dobretsov, Early Paleozoic tectonics and geodynamics of Central Asia: role of mantle plumes, Russian Geology and Geophysics, vol.52, issue.12, pp.1539-1552, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rgg.2011.11.003

N. L. Dobretsov and M. M. Buslov, Late Cambrian-Ordovician tectonics and geodynamics of Central Asia, Russian Geology and Geophysics, vol.48, issue.1, pp.71-82, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rgg.2006.12.006

R. A. Donelick, R. A. Ketcham, and W. D. Carlson, Variability of apatite fission-track annealing kinetics; II, Crystallographic orientation effects, American Mineralogist, vol.84, issue.9, pp.1224-1234, 1999.
DOI : 10.2138/am-1999-0902

R. Donelick, P. O-'sullivan, and R. Ketcham, Apatite Fission-Track Analysis, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol.58, issue.1, pp.49-94, 2005.
DOI : 10.2138/rmg.2005.58.3

Y. Dong, G. Zhang, F. Neubauer, X. Liu, C. Hauzenberger et al., Syn- and post-collisional granitoids in the Central Tianshan orogen: Geochemistry, geochronology and implications for tectonic evolution, Gondwana Research, vol.20, issue.2-3, pp.568-581, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gr.2011.01.013

T. A. Dumitru, D. Zhou, E. Z. Chang, and S. A. Graham, Uplift, exhumation, and deformation in the Chinese Tian Shan, pp.71-99, 2001.
DOI : 10.1130/0-8137-1194-0.71

Y. Feng, R. G. Coleman, G. Tilton, and X. Xiao, Tectonic evolution of the West Junggar region, pp.729-752, 1989.

I. B. Filippova, V. A. Bush, and A. N. Didenko, Middle Paleozoic subduction belts: The leading factor in the formation of the Central Asian fold-and-thrust belt, Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.3, issue.6, pp.405-426, 2001.
DOI : 10.2205/2001ES000073

R. F. Galbraith, The radial plot: Graphical assessment of spread in ages, International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part D. Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements, vol.17, issue.3, pp.207-214, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/1359-0189(90)90036-W

K. Gallagher, Transdimensional inverse thermal history modeling for quantitative thermochronology, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.297, issue.3, p.117, 2012.
DOI : 10.2475/ajs.297.10.939

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00676497

R. Gao, L. Xiao, F. Pirajno, G. Wang, X. He et al., Carboniferous???Permian extensive magmatism in the West Junggar, Xinjiang, northwestern China: its geochemistry, geochronology, and petrogenesis, Lithos, vol.204, pp.125-143, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lithos.2014.05.028

S. -. Geochemical, Nd and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic studies of Late Carboniferous magmatism in the West Junggar, Xinjiang: Implications for ridge subduction?, Chemical Geology, vol.266, pp.364-389

H. Geng, M. Sun, C. Yuan, G. Zhao, and W. Xiao, Geochemical and geochronological study of early Carboniferous volcanic rocks from the West Junggar: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.42, issue.5, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2011.01.006

A. J. Gleadow, I. R. Duddy, P. F. Green, and J. F. Lovering, Confined fission track lengths in apatite: a diagnostic tool for thermal history analysis, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol.15, issue.4, pp.405-415, 1986.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00376334

S. Glorie and J. De-grave, Exhuming the Meso-Cenozoic Kyrgyz Tian Shan and Siberian, 2015.

S. Glorie, J. De-grave, M. M. Buslov, F. I. Zhimulev, A. Izmer et al., Formation and Palaeozoic evolution of the Gorny, 2011.

S. Glorie, J. De-grave, D. Delvaux, M. M. Buslov, F. I. Zhimulev et al., Tectonic history of the Irtysh shear zone (NE Kazakhstan): New constraints from zircon U/Pb dating, apatite fission track dating and palaeostress analysis, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.45, pp.138-149, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2011.09.024

S. Glorie, F. I. Zhimulev, M. M. Buslov, T. Andersen, D. Plavsa et al., Formation of the Kokchetav subduction???collision zone (northern Kazakhstan): Insights from zircon U???Pb and Lu???Hf isotope systematics, Gondwana Research, vol.27, issue.1, pp.424-438, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gr.2013.10.012

J. Golonka, Plate tectonic evolution of the southern margin of Eurasia in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, Tectonophysics, vol.381, issue.1-4, pp.235-273, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tecto.2002.06.004

P. F. Green, I. R. Duddy, A. J. Gleadow, P. R. Tingate, and G. M. Laslett, Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite, Chemical Geology: Isotope Geoscience section, vol.59, pp.237-253, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0168-9622(86)90074-6

L. S. Guo, Y. L. Liu, Z. H. Wang, D. Song, F. J. Xu et al., The zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology of volcanic rocks in Baogutu areas, western Junggar, Acta Petrologica Sinica, vol.26, pp.471-477, 2010.

B. F. Han, J. Q. Ji, B. Song, L. H. Chen, and L. Zhang, Late Paleozoic vertical growth of continental crust around the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China (Part I): Timing of post-collisional plutonism, Acta Petrologica Sinica, vol.22, pp.1077-1086, 2006.

B. Han, Z. Guo, Z. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Chen et al., Age, geochemistry, and tectonic implications of a late Paleozoic stitching pluton in the North Tian Shan suture zone, western China, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.122, issue.3-4, pp.627-640, 2010.
DOI : 10.1130/B26491.1

B. Han, G. He, X. Wang, and Z. Guo, Late Carboniferous collision between the Tarim and Kazakhstan???Yili terranes in the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen, Central Asia, and implications for the Northern Xinjiang, western China, Central Asia, and implications for the Northern Xinjiang, western China, pp.74-93, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.09.001

J. Heinhorst, B. Lehmann, P. Ermolov, V. Serykh, and S. Zhurutin, Paleozoic crustal growth and metallogeny of Central Asia: evidence from magmatic-hydrothermal ore systems of Central Kazakhstan, Tectonophysics, vol.328, issue.1-2, pp.69-87, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0040-1951(00)00178-5

M. S. Hendrix, T. A. Dumitru, and S. A. Graham, Late Oligocene ? Early Miocene unroofing in the, 1994.

P. W. Hoskin, Patterns of chaos: fractal statistics and the oscillatory chemistry of zircon, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.64, issue.11, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-7037(00)00330-6

A. J. Hurford, Standardization of fission track dating calibration: Recommendation by the Fission Track Working Group of the I.U.G.S. Subcommission on Geochronology, Chemical Geology: Isotope Geoscience section, vol.80, issue.2, pp.171-178, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0168-9622(90)90025-8

S. E. Jackson, N. J. Pearson, W. L. Griffin, and E. Belousova, The application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to in situ U???Pb zircon geochronology, Chemical Geology, vol.211, issue.1-2, pp.47-69, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.06.017

M. Jolivet, Mesozoic tectonic and topographic evolution of Central Asia and Tibet: a preliminary synthesis, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 2015.
DOI : 10.1144/SP427.2

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01117642

M. Jolivet, S. Dominguez, J. Charreau, Y. Chen, Y. G. Li et al., Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic history of the central Chinese Tian Shan: Reactivated tectonic structures and active deformation, Tectonics, vol.359, issue.1, pp.29-6019, 2010.
DOI : 10.1029/2010TC002712

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00551323

. Devonian-paleomagnetism-of-the-north-tien-shan, implications for the middle-Late Paleozoic paleogeography of Eurasia, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.257, pp.104-120

G. Li, M. Cao, K. Qin, N. J. Evans, B. I. Mcinnes et al., Thermal-tectonic history of the Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit, West Junggar as constrained from zircon U???Pb, biotite Ar/Ar and zircon/apatite (U???Th)/He dating, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.79, pp.741-758, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2013.05.026

D. Liu, Z. Guo, M. Jolivet, F. Cheng, Y. Song et al., Petrology and geochemistry of Early Permian volcanic rocks in South Tian Shan, NW China: implications for the tectonic evolution and Phanerozoic continental growth, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.166, issue.147, pp.737-756, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s00531-013-0994-1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01119357

. Southeastern-kazakhstan, Lake Basins Through Space and Time, pp.59-64

K. Ludwig, User's Manual for Isoplot 3.00, A Geochronological Toolkit for Microsoft Excel, 2003.

E. A. Macaulay, E. R. Sobel, A. Mikolaichuk, B. Kohn, and F. M. Stuart, Cenozoic deformation and exhumation history of the Central Kyrgyz Tien Shan, Tectonics, vol.29, issue.1, pp.135-165, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/2013TC003376

I. Metcalfe, Gondwana dispersion and Asian accretion: Tectonic and palaeogeographic evolution of eastern Tethys, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.66, pp.1-33, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2012.12.020

D. V. Metelkin, V. A. Vernikovsky, A. Y. Kazansky, and M. T. Wingate, Late Mesozoic tectonics of Central Asia based on paleomagnetic evidence, Gondwana Research, vol.18, issue.2-3, pp.400-419, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gr.2009.12.008

D. V. Metelkin, V. A. Vernikovsky, A. Kazansky, and . Yu, Tectonic evolution of the Siberian paleocontinent from the Neoproterozoic to the Late Mesozoic: paleomagnetic record and reconstructions, Russian Geology and Geophysics, vol.53, issue.7, pp.675-688, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rgg.2012.05.006

I. S. Novikov, Reconstructing the stages of orogeny around the Junggar basin from the lithostratigraphy of Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic sediments, Russian Geology and Geophysics, vol.54, issue.2, pp.138-152, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rgg.2013.01.002

Y. Rolland, D. Alexeiev, A. Kröner, M. Corsini, C. Loury et al., Late Palaeozoic to, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00831326

R. Ren, B. Han, J. Ji, L. Zhang, Z. Xu et al., U???Pb age of detrital zircons from the Tekes River, Xinjiang, China, and implications for tectonomagmatic evolution of the South Tian Shan Orogen, Gondwana Research, vol.19, issue.2, pp.460-470, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gr.2010.07.005

F. Roger, M. Jolivet, and J. Malavieille, The tectonic evolution of the Songpan-Garz?? (North Tibet) and adjacent areas from Proterozoic to Present: A synthesis, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.39, issue.4, pp.254-269, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2010.03.008

J. Selander, M. Oskin, C. Ormukov, and K. Abdrakhmatov, Inherited strike-slip faults as an origin for basement-cored uplifts: Example of the Kungey and Zailiskey Ranges, 2012.

R. Seltmann, D. Konopelko, G. Biske, F. Divaev, and S. Sergeev, Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the context of Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Tien Shan orogenic belt, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.42, issue.5, pp.821-838, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2010.08.016

A. M. Sengör and B. A. Natal-'in, Paleotectonics of Asia: fragments of a synthesis, 1996.

T. M. Harrison, The tectonic Evolution of Asia, pp.486-641

A. M. Sengör, B. A. Natal-'in, and V. S. Burtman, Evolution of the Altaid Tectonic Collage and Paleozoic Crustal Growth in Eurasia, Nature, issue.6435, pp.364-299, 1993.

P. Shen, Y. Shen, X. Li, H. Pan, H. Zhu et al., Northwestern Junggar Basin, Xiemisitai Mountains, China: A geochemical and geochronological approach, Lithos, vol.140, issue.141, pp.140-141, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lithos.2012.02.004

P. Shen, H. Pan, W. Xiao, X. Chen, E. Seitmuratova et al., Two geodynamic???metallogenic events in the Balkhash (Kazakhstan) and the West Junggar (China): Carboniferous porphyry Cu and Permian greisen W-Mo mineralization, International Geology Review, vol.26, issue.9, pp.1660-1687, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lithos.2011.03.013

P. Shen, W. Xiao, H. Pan, L. Dong, and C. Li, Petrogenesis and tectonic settings of the Late Carboniferous Jiamantieliek and Baogutu ore-bearing porphyry intrusions in the southern West Junggar, NW China, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.75, pp.158-173, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2013.07.024

B. Wang, D. Cluzel, L. Shu, M. Faure, J. Charvet et al., Evolution of calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism through Carboniferous convergence to Permian transcurrent tectonics, western Chinese Tianshan, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.33, issue.3, pp.1275-1298, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00531-008-0408-y

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00357021

Q. Wang, S. Li, and Z. Du, Differential uplift of the Chinese Tianshan since the Cretaceous: constraints from sedimentary petrography and apatite fission-track dating, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.87, issue.1, pp.1341-1363, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00531-009-0436-2

S. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Charreau, D. Wei, and D. Jia, Tectono-stratigraphic history of the southern Junggar basin: seismic profiling evidences, Terra Nova, vol.376, issue.TC2008, pp.490-495, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/ter.12063

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00852430

S. N. Wei, J. F. Cheng, D. B. Yu, and Y. F. Zhu, Petrology and SHRIMP zircon ages of intrusive body III in Baogutu area, Xinjiang. Earth Science Frontiers, vol.18, pp.212-222, 2011.

C. Wilhem, B. F. Windley, and G. M. Stampfli, The Altaids of Central Asia: A tectonic and evolutionary innovative review, Earth-Science Reviews, vol.113, issue.3-4, pp.303-341, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.earscirev.2012.04.001

B. F. Windley, D. Alexeiev, W. Xiao, A. Kröner, and G. Badarch, Tectonic models for accretion of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Journal of the Geological Society, vol.164, issue.1, pp.31-47, 2007.
DOI : 10.1144/0016-76492006-022

W. Xiao, C. Han, C. Yuan, M. Sun, S. Lin et al., Middle Cambrian to Permian subduction-related accretionary orogenesis of Northern Xinjiang, NW China: Implications for the tectonic evolution of central Asia, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.32, issue.2-4, pp.102-117, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2007.10.008

J. Yin, C. Yuan, M. Sun, X. Long, G. Zhao et al., Late Carboniferous high-Mg dioritic dikes in Western Junggar, NW China: Geochemical features, petrogenesis and tectonic implications, Gondwana Research, vol.17, issue.1, pp.145-152, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gr.2009.05.011

J. Yin, X. Long, C. Yuan, M. Sun, G. Zhao et al., A Late Carboniferous???Early Permian slab window in the West Junggar of NW China: Geochronological and geochemical evidence from mafic to intermediate dikes, Lithos, vol.175, issue.176, pp.175-176, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lithos.2013.04.005

S. Yu, W. Chen, N. J. Evans, B. I. Mcinnes, J. Yin et al., Cenozoic uplift, exhumation and deformation in the north Kuqa Depression, China as constrained by (U???Th)/He thermochronometry, Tectonophysics, vol.630, pp.166-182, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tecto.2014.05.021

W. Yuan, A. Carter, J. Dong, Z. Bao, Y. An et al., Mesozoic???Tertiary exhumation history of the Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, China: New constraints from apatite fission track data, Tectonophysics, vol.412, issue.3-4, pp.183-193, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tecto.2005.09.007

L. Zhao and G. He, Tectonic entities connection between West Junggar (NW China) and East Kazakhstan, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.72, pp.25-32, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2012.08.004

T. Zhou, F. Yuan, Y. Fan, D. Zhang, D. Cooke et al., Granites in the Sawuer region of the west Junggar, Xinjiang Province, China: Geochronological and geochemical characteristics and their geodynamic significance, Lithos, vol.106, issue.3-4, pp.191-206, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lithos.2008.06.014

Y. F. Zhu, G. Q. He, and F. An, Geological evolution and metallogeny in the core part of the Central Asian metallogenic domain, Geological Bulletin of China, vol.26, pp.1167-1177, 2007.

Y. A. Zorin, Geodynamics of the western part of the Mongolia???Okhotsk collisional belt, Trans-Baikal region (Russia) and Mongolia, Tectonophysics, vol.306, issue.1, p.1240, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0040-1951(99)00042-6

W. Kazak and . Junggar, Altyn-Emel Ranges Trans-Ili, Sogeti & Zhetyzol Ranges NW Lak e Balk hash Fig. 3. (a) Schematic overview of the key basement units of SE Kazakhstan based on Alexeiev

=. Devonian, C. Carboniferous, and P. Permian, Schematic reconstruction of the geodynamic setting of Siberia (SIB) Kazakhstan (KAZ), Europa (EUR) and Tarim (T) during the early Carboniferous (b) and early Permian (c) based on Emphasis on main sutures and faults (dashed lines) and subduction zones, Filippova, 2001.