E. Blayo, S. Durbiano, A. Vidard, L. Dimet, and F. , Reduced order strategies for variational data assimilation in oceanic models , in: Data Assimilation for Geophysical Flows, 2003.

P. Bouttier, E. Blayo, J. Brankart, P. Brasseur, E. Cosme et al., Toward a data assimilation system for NEMO, Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter, vol.46, pp.24-30, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00945600

N. Daget, A. T. Weaver, and M. A. Balmaseda, Ensemble estimation of background-error variances in a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for the global ocean, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.131, issue.641, pp.1071-1094, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.412

C. Deltel, Estimation de la circulation dans l'océan Atlantique Sud par assimilation variationnelle de données in situ, Impact du contrôle optimal des forçages et de l'hydrologie aux frontières ouvertes, 2002.

S. Durbiano, Vecteurs caractéristiques de modèles océaniques pour la réduction d'ordre en assimilation de données, 2001.

R. M. Errico, What Is an Adjoint Model?, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.78, issue.11, pp.2577-2591, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2577:WIAAM>2.0.CO;2

G. Forget, B. Ferron, and H. Mercier, Combining Argo profiles with a general circulation model in the North Atlantic. Part 1: Estimation of hydrographic and circulation anomalies from synthetic profiles, over a year, Ocean Modelling, vol.20, issue.1, pp.1-16, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.06.001

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00267345

R. Giering and T. Kaminski, Recipes for adjoint code construction, ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, vol.24, issue.4, pp.437-474, 1998.
DOI : 10.1145/293686.293695

L. Hascoët and V. Pascual, TAPENADE 2.1 user's guide, 2004.

A. Lawless, N. Nichols, S. J. Ballard, and . Roy, A comparison of two methods for developing the linearization of a shallow-water model, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.126, issue.589, pp.1237-1254, 2003.
DOI : 10.1256/qj.02.75

R. B. Lehoucq, D. C. Sorensen, Y. , and C. , ARPACK Users' Guide: Solution of Large-scale Eigenvalue Problems with Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Methods, SIAM Philadelphia, 1998.
DOI : 10.1137/1.9780898719628

G. Madec, NEMO ocean engine, Note du Pôle de modélisation, 2008.

G. Madec, P. Delecluse, M. Imbard, and C. Lévy, OPA 8.1 ocean general circulation model reference manual, IPSL, Note No, 1998.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00154217

J. Marotzke, R. Giering, K. Q. Zhang, D. Stammer, C. Hill et al., Construction of the adjoint MIT ocean general circulation model and application to Atlantic heat transport sensitivity, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.57, issue.C12, pp.29529-29547, 1999.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JC900236

K. S. Mogensen, M. A. Balmaseda, W. Anthony, M. Martin, and A. Vidard, NEMOVAR: A variational data assimilation system for the NEMO ocean model, ECMWF newsletter, vol.120, pp.17-21, 2009.

A. Moore, J. Vialard, A. Weaver, D. Anderson, R. Kleeman et al., The Role of Air???Sea Interaction in Controlling the Optimal Perturbations of Low-Frequency Tropical Coupled Ocean???Atmosphere Modes, Journal of Climate, vol.16, issue.6, pp.951-968, 2003.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<0951:TROASI>2.0.CO;2

A. Moore, H. Arango, D. Lorenzo, E. Cornuelle, B. Miller et al., A comprehensive ocean prediction and analysis system based on the tangent linear and adjoint of a regional ocean model, Ocean Modelling, vol.7, issue.1-2, pp.227-258, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ocemod.2003.11.001

M. Mu, F. Zhou, W. , and H. , A Method for Identifying the Sensitive Areas in Targeted Observations for Tropical Cyclone Prediction: Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation, Monthly Weather Review, vol.137, issue.5, pp.1623-1639, 2009.
DOI : 10.1175/2008MWR2640.1

X. Qin and M. Mu, Influence of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations sensitivity on typhoon track forecasts, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.137, issue.662, pp.185-197, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.902

E. Rémy, Assimilation variationnelle de données tomographiques simulées dans des modèles de circulation océanique, 1999.

O. Rivière, G. Lapeyre, T. , and O. J. Roy, A novel technique for nonlinear sensitivity analysis: application to moist predictability, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.45, issue.643, pp.1520-1537, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.460

F. Sévellec, T. Huck, M. Benjelloul, N. Grima, J. Vialard et al., Optimal Surface Salinity Perturbations of the Meridional Overturning and Heat Transport in a Global Ocean General Circulation Model, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.38, issue.12, pp.2739-2754, 2008.
DOI : 10.1175/2008JPO3875.1

F. Sévellec, T. Huck, M. Benjelloul, and J. Vialard, Nonnormal Multidecadal Response of the Thermohaline Circulation Induced by Optimal Surface Salinity Perturbations, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.39, issue.4, pp.852-872, 2009.
DOI : 10.1175/2008JPO3998.1

M. H. Tber, L. Hascoet, A. Vidard, and B. Dauvergne, Building the Tangent and Adjoint codes of the Ocean General Circulation Model OPA with the Automatic Differentiation tool TAPE- NADE, 2007.

J. Thuburn, Adjoints of Nonoscillatory Advection Schemes, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.171, issue.2, pp.616-631, 2001.
DOI : 10.1006/jcph.2001.6799

A. Vidard, Vers une prise en compte de l'erreur modèle en assimilation de données 4D-variationnelle, 2001.

A. Vidard, E. Rémy, and E. Greiner, Sensitivity analysis through adjoint method: application to the GLORYS reanalysis, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00940839

F. C. Vossepoel, A. Weaver, J. Vialard, and P. Delecluse, Adjustment of Near-Equatorial Wind Stress with Four-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation in a Model of the Pacific Ocean, Monthly Weather Review, vol.132, issue.8, pp.2070-2083, 2003.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<2070:AONWSW>2.0.CO;2

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00125021

A. T. Weaver, J. Vialard, A. , and D. L. , Three- and Four-Dimensional Variational Assimilation with a General Circulation Model of the Tropical Pacific Ocean. Part I: Formulation, Internal Diagnostics, and Consistency Checks, Monthly Weather Review, vol.131, issue.7, pp.1360-1378, 2003.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<1360:TAFVAW>2.0.CO;2

A. T. Weaver, C. Deltel, E. Machu, S. J. Ricci, and . Roy, A multivariate balance operator for variational ocean data assimilation, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.131, issue.41, pp.3605-3625, 2005.
DOI : 10.1256/qj.05.119

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00125249

L. Zanna, P. Heimbach, A. M. Moore, E. Tziperman, and Q. J. Roy, Upperocean singular vectors of the North Atlantic climate with implications for linear predictability and variability, Model Dev, pp.500-513, 1245.