F. Aires, F. Bernardo, and C. Prigent, Atmospheric water-vapour profiling from passive microwave sounders over ocean and land. Part I: Methodology for the Megha-Tropiques mission, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.38, issue.673, pp.852-864, 2013.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.1888

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01091222

F. Bernardo, F. Aires, and C. Prigent, Atmospheric water-vapour profiling from passive microwave sounders over ocean and land. Part II: Validation using existing instruments, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.114, issue.673, pp.865-878, 1946.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.1946

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01091222

H. Brogniez, G. Clain, R. , and R. , Validation of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from SAPHIR onboard Megha-Tropiques using tropical soundings, 2015.

H. Brogniez, P. Kirstetter, and L. Eymard, Expected improvements in the atmospheric humidity profile retrieval using the Megha-Tropiques microwave payload, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.25, issue.673, pp.842-851, 2013.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.1869

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00655085

H. Brogniez, R. Roca, and L. Picon, A Study of the Free Tropospheric Humidity Interannual Variability Using Meteosat Data and an Advection???Condensation Transport Model, Journal of Climate, vol.22, issue.24, pp.6773-6787, 2009.
DOI : 10.1175/2009JCLI2963.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00408503

P. J. Brown and C. D. Kummerow, An Assessment of Atmospheric Water Budget Components over Tropical Oceans, Journal of Climate, vol.27, issue.5, pp.2054-2071, 2014.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00385.1

M. M. Capderou, F. Deleflie, C. , O. , V. Boone et al., Megha-Tropiques Technical Memorandum #1 Available online at: http:// meghatropiques.ipsl.polytechnique.fr/available-documents/mttm/index Rendez-Vous Between MT and TERRA, Determination and Analysis. Megha-Tropiques Technical Memorandum #6 Available online at: http://meghatropiques.ipsl. polytechnique.fr/available-documents/mttm/index Potential of satellite rainfall products to predict Niger River flood events in Niamey, Sampling: Comparison with other Meteorological Satellites, 2009.

P. Chambon, I. Jobard, R. Roca, and N. Viltard, An investigation of the error budget of tropical rainfall accumulation derived from merged passive microwave and infrared satellite measurements, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.10, issue.189, pp.879-893, 1907.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.1907

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00676835

P. Chambon, L. F. Meunier, F. Guillaume, J. M. Piriou, R. Roca et al., Investigating the impact of the water-vapour sounding observations from SAPHIR on board Megha-Tropiques for the ARPEGE global model, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.141, issue.690, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.2478

P. Chambon, R. Roca, I. Jobard, and M. Capderou, The Sensitivity of Tropical Rainfall Estimation From Satellite to the Configuration of the Microwave Imager Constellation, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol.10, issue.5, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/LGRS.2012.2227668

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00996326

O. Chomette, R. Kandel, P. Raberanto, R. Roca, M. Viollier et al., The european experiment ScaRaB (scanner for radiation budget), pp.75-80, 2012.

G. Clain, H. Brogniez, V. Payne, V. John, and M. Luo, An Assessment of SAPHIR Calibration Using Quality Tropical Soundings, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol.32, issue.1, pp.61-78, 2014.
DOI : 10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00054.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01068324

E. Defer, V. S. Galligani, C. Prigent, and C. Jimenez, First observations of polarized scattering over ice clouds at close-to-millimeter wavelengths (157???GHz) with MADRAS on board the Megha-Tropiques mission, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.117, issue.7, pp.12301-12316, 1002.
DOI : 10.1029/2011JD016369

M. Desbois, M. Capderou, L. Eymard, R. Roca, N. Viltard et al., Megha-Tropiques : un satellite hydrom??t??orologique franco-indien, La M??t??orologie, vol.8, issue.57, pp.19-27, 2007.
DOI : 10.4267/2042/18185

M. Desbois, T. Kayiranga, B. Gnamien, S. Guessous, and L. Picon, Characterization of Some Elements of the Sahelian Climate and Their Interannual Variations for July 1983, 1984 and 1985 from the Analysis of METEOSAT ISCCP Data, Journal of Climate, vol.1, issue.9, pp.867-904, 1983.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1988)001<0867:COSEOT>2.0.CO;2

M. Desbois, R. Roca, L. Eymard, N. Viltard, M. Viollier et al., The Megha-Tropiques mission, Atmospheric and Oceanic Processes, Dynamics, and Climate Change, pp.172-10466703, 1117.
DOI : 10.1117/12.466703

J. P. Duvel, M. Viollier, P. Raberanto, R. Kandel, M. Haeffelin et al., The ScaRaB???Resurs Earth Radiation Budget Dataset and First Results, TSRERB>2.3.CO, pp.1397-1408, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(2001)082<1397:TSRERB>2.3.CO;2

L. Eymard, M. Gheudin, P. Laborie, F. Sirou, L. Gac et al., The SAPHIR humidity sounder, 2002.

T. Fiolleau, R. , and R. , An Algorithm for the Detection and Tracking of Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems Using Infrared Images From Geostationary Satellite, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.51, issue.7, pp.4302-4315, 2013.
DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2227762

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00996334

T. Fiolleau, R. , and R. , Composite life cycle of tropical mesoscale convective systems from geostationary and low Earth orbit satellite observations: method and sampling considerations, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.124, issue.673, pp.941-953, 2013.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.2174

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00996335

E. Fontaine, A. Schwarzenboeck, J. Delanoë, W. Wobrock, D. Leroy et al., Constraining mass???diameter relations from hydrometeor images and cloud radar reflectivities in tropical continental and oceanic convective anvils, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.14, issue.20, pp.11367-11392, 2014.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-14-11367-2014

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00937484

B. S. Gohil, R. M. Gairola, A. K. Mathur, A. K. Varma, C. Mahesh et al., Algorithms for retrieving geophysical parameters from the MADRAS and SAPHIR sensors of the Megha-Tropiques satellite: Indian scenario, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.47, issue.673, pp.954-963, 2013.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.2041

M. Gosset, J. Viarre, G. Quantin, A. , and M. , Evaluation of several rainfall products used for hydrological applications over West Africa using two high-resolution gauge networks, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.12, issue.189, pp.923-940, 2013.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.2130

A. Y. Hou, R. K. Kakar, S. Neeck, A. A. Azarbarzin, C. D. Kummerow et al., The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.95, issue.5, pp.701-722, 2014.
DOI : 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00164.1

G. J. Huffman, R. F. Adler, M. M. Morrissey, D. T. Bolvin, S. Curtis et al., Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution from Multisatellite Observations, 002<0036:GPAODD>2.0.CO, pp.36-50, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1525-7541(2001)002<0036:GPAODD>2.0.CO;2

R. Kandel, J. L. Monge, M. Viollier, L. A. Pakhomov, V. I. Adasco et al., The ScaRaB project: earth radiation budget observations from the meteor satellites, Advances in Space Research, vol.14, issue.1, pp.47-54, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0273-1177(94)90346-8

R. Kandel and M. Viollier, Observation of the Earth's radiation budget from space, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, vol.342, issue.4-5, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.crte.2010.01.005

R. Kandel, M. Viollier, P. Raberanto, J. P. Duvel, L. A. Pakhomov et al., The ScaRaB Earth Radiation Budget Dataset, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.79, issue.5, pp.765-783, 1998.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<0765:TSERBD>2.0.CO;2

N. Karouche, C. Goldstein, A. Rosak, C. Malassingne, and G. Raju, MEGHA - TROPIQUES satellite mission: In flight performances results, 2012 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, pp.4684-4687, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/IGARSS.2012.6350420

P. Kirstetter, N. Viltard, and M. Gosset, An error model for instantaneous satellite rainfall estimates: evaluation of BRAIN-TMI over West Africa, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.92, issue.673, pp.894-911, 1964.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.1964

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00834180

A. K. Koffi, M. Gosset, E. Zahiri, A. D. Ochou, M. Kacou et al., Evaluation of X-band polarimetric radar estimation of rainfall and rain drop size distribution parameters in West Africa, Atmospheric Research, vol.143, pp.438-461, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.03.009

C. Kummerow, W. Barnes, T. Kozu, J. Shiue, and J. Simpson, The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Sensor Package, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol.15, issue.3, pp.808-816, 1998.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<0809:TTRMMT>2.0.CO;2

C. Kuo, D. Staelin, R. , and P. , Statistical iterative scheme for estimating atmospheric relative humidity profiles, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.32, issue.2, pp.254-260, 1994.
DOI : 10.1109/36.295039

Q. Liu and F. Weng, One-dimensional variational retrieval algorithm of temperature, water vapor and cloud water profiles from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol.43, pp.1087-1095843211, 2004.

N. G. Loeb, B. A. Wielicki, D. R. Doelling, L. Smith, G. Keyes et al., Toward Optimal Closure of the Earth's Top-of-Atmosphere Radiation Budget, Journal of Climate, vol.22, issue.3, pp.748-766, 2009.
DOI : 10.1175/2008JCLI2637.1

A. Martini, N. Viltard, S. M. Ellis, and E. Fontaine, Ice microphysics retrieval in the convective systems of the Indian Ocean during the CINDY???DYNAMO campaign, Atmospheric Research, vol.163
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.12.013

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01121234

A. K. Mathur, R. K. Gangwar, B. S. Gohil, S. K. Deb, P. Kumar et al., Humidity profile retrieval from saphir on-board the Megha-Tropiques, Curr. Sci, vol.104, pp.1650-1655, 2013.

I. Moradi, Inter-calibration of observations from SAPHIR and ATMS instruments, GSICS Quarterly, vol.8, pp.1-2, 2014.

R. T. Pierrehumbert, Thermostats, Radiator Fins, and the Local Runaway Greenhouse, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.52, issue.10, pp.1784-1806, 1995.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<1784:TRFATL>2.0.CO;2

P. Raberanto, O. Chomette, M. Capderou, R. , and R. , Validation of Flux from SCARAB-3 on Board Megha-Tropiques, 2015.

C. S. Raju, Y. Antony, N. Mathew, K. N. Uma, K. Moorthy et al., MT-MADRAS brightness temperature analysis for terrain characterization and land surface microwave emissivity estimation, Curr. Sci, vol.104, pp.1643-1649, 2013.

F. R. Robertson, M. G. Bosilovich, J. B. Roberts, R. H. Reichle, R. Adler et al., Consistency of Estimated Global Water Cycle Variations over the Satellite Era, Journal of Climate, vol.27, issue.16, pp.6135-6154, 2014.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00384.1

R. Roca, J. Aublanc, P. Chambon, T. Fiolleau, and N. Viltard, Robust Observational Quantification of the Contribution of Mesoscale Convective Systems to Rainfall in the Tropics, Journal of Climate, vol.27, issue.13, pp.4952-4958, 2014.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00628.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00976400

R. Roca, J. C. Bergès, H. Brogniez, M. Capderou, P. Chambon et al., On the water and energy cycles in the Tropics, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, vol.342, issue.4-5, pp.390-402, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.crte.2010.01.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00470287

R. Roca, P. Chambon, I. Jobard, P. Kirstetter, M. Gosset et al., Comparing Satellite and Surface Rainfall Products over West Africa at Meteorologically Relevant Scales during the AMMA Campaign Using Error Estimates, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol.49, issue.4, pp.715-731, 2010.
DOI : 10.1175/2009JAMC2318.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00438715

R. Roca, Contribution of the Megha-Tropiques Mission to the Global Precipitation Mission Constellation Based Accumulated Rainfall Estimation, 2015.

V. Sathiyamoorthy, B. P. Shukla, R. Sikhakolli, S. Chaurasia, B. Simon et al., Top of atmosphere flux from the Megha-Tropiques ScaRaB, Curr. Sci, vol.104, pp.1656-1661, 2013.

G. Sèze, J. Pelon, M. Derrien, L. Gléau, H. Six et al., Evaluation against CALIPSO lidar observations of the multi-geostationary cloud cover and type dataset assembled in the framework of the Megha-Tropiques mission, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.112, issue.688, pp.774-797, 2015.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JD007371

S. C. Sherwood, R. Roca, T. Weckwerth, and N. Andronova, Tropospheric water vapor, convection, and climate, Reviews of Geophysics, vol.19, issue.D14, 2010.
DOI : 10.1029/2009RG000301

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01139726

R. Sivira, H. Brogniez, C. Mallet, and Y. Oussar, A layer-averaged relative humidity profile retrieval for microwave observations: design and results for the Megha-Tropiques payload, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol.8, issue.3, pp.1055-1071, 2015.
DOI : 10.5194/amt-8-1055-2015

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01060604

G. L. Smith, Z. Peter-szewczyk, K. J. Priestley, R. , and R. , Method of comparing CERES and ScaRaB 3 measurements, 2012 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, p.85331, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/IGARSS.2012.6352003

J. Srinivasan and P. C. Joshi, What have we learned about the Indian monsoon from satellite data?, Curr. Sci, vol.93, pp.165-172, 2007.

G. L. Stephens, E. , and T. D. , Controls of Global-Mean Precipitation Increases in Global Warming GCM Experiments, Journal of Climate, vol.21, issue.23, pp.6141-6155, 2008.
DOI : 10.1175/2008JCLI2144.1

A. Szantai, B. Six, S. Cloché, and G. Sèze, Quality of Geostationary Satellite Images. Megha-Tropiques Technical Memorandum #3, http://meghatropiques. ipsl.polytechnique.fr/available-documents/mttm/index Multiscale cloud system modeling, Rev. Geophys, vol.47, 2009.

B. V. Thampi, R. , and R. , Investigation of negative cloud radiative forcing over the Indian subcontinent and adjacent oceans during the summer monsoon season, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.14, issue.13, pp.6739-6758, 2014.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-14-6739-2014

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00996365

I. Tobin, S. Bony, R. , and R. , Observational Evidence for Relationships between the Degree of Aggregation of Deep Convection, Water Vapor, Surface Fluxes, and Radiation, Journal of Climate, vol.25, issue.20, pp.6885-6904, 2012.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00258.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01113615

N. Viltard, C. Burlaud, and C. D. Kummerow, Rain Retrieval from TMI Brightness Temperature Measurements Using a TRMM PR???Based Database, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol.45, issue.3, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/JAM2346.1

M. Viollier, R. , and P. , Radiometric and Spectral Characteristics of the ScaRaB-3 Instrument on Megha-Tropiques: Comparisons with ERBE, CERES, and GERB, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol.27, issue.3, pp.428-442, 2010.
DOI : 10.1175/2009JTECHA1307.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01142305

M. Viollier, C. Standfuss, O. Chomette, and A. Quesney, Top-of-Atmosphere Radiance-to-Flux Conversion in the SW Domain for the ScaRaB-3 Instrument on Megha-Tropiques, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol.26, issue.10, pp.2161-2171, 2009.
DOI : 10.1175/2009JTECHA1264.1

T. Wilheit, H. Brogniez, S. Datta, L. Jones, W. Payne et al., The use of SAPHIR on Megha-Tropiques for intercalibration of polar-orbiting microwave water vapor sounders, 2013 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference 19th American Meteorological Society Satellite Meteorology, Oceanography, and Climatology Conference, p.272, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01006237

S. Wood, Generalized Additive Models, an Introduction with R, 2006.

L. Xu, X. Gao, S. Sorooshian, P. A. Arkin, and B. Imam, A Microwave Infrared Threshold Technique to Improve the GOES Precipitation Index, Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol.38, issue.5, pp.569-579, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<0569:AMITTT>2.0.CO;2

E. J. Zipser, C. Liu, D. J. Cecil, S. W. Nesbitt, Y. et al., WHERE ARE THE MOST INTENSE THUNDERSTORMS ON EARTH?, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.87, issue.8, pp.1057-1071, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/BAMS-87-8-1057