In-situ characterisation of aerosol and gases (SO 2 , HCl, ozone) in Mt Etna volcano plume

Abstract : We present findings from a measurement campaign that deployed a range of in-situ real-time atmospheric measurement techniques to characterise aerosols and gases in Mt Etna plume in October 2013. The LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) instrument for size-resolved particle measurements was deployed alongside two Multi-Gas instruments (measuring SO 2 , H2S, HCl, CO 2) and an ozone sensor. Measurements were performed at the summit craters (in cloudy-and non-cloudy conditions) and in grounding downwind plume on the volcano flank. These high frequency measurements (acid gases: 1 to 0.1 Hz, aerosol: 0.1 Hz) provide a detailed in-situ dataset for time-resolved plume characterisation and volcano monitoring. The LOAC measurement of sized-resolved aerosol (over a 0.2 to 50 µm particle diameter range) alongside SO 2 (10's ppbv to 10's ppmv) provides a valuable dataset for determining the volcanic aerosol volume and surface area to SO 2 ratios. These parameters are presently poorly defined but are important for atmospheric models of the reactive halogen chemistry that occurs on volcanic aerosol surfaces to convert volcanic HBr into reactive bromine, including BrO. The LOAC's patented optical design can also provide insights into particle properties. The two Multi-Gas SO 2 time-series show good agreement, detecting co-varying plume fluctuations in the downwind plume, which also correlate with the LOAC total aerosol volume time-series. An estimate of HCl/SO 2 in Etna emissions was made by Multi-Gas electrochemical sensor, using a novel design to limit absorption/desorption effects and low-noise electronics for improved resolution. The detection of volcanic HCl by electrochemical sensor brings new possibilities for Multi-Gas monitoring of volcanic halogen emissions. Electrochemical sensor response times are not instantaneous, particularly for sticky gases such as HCl (T90 ∼min), but also even for " fast " response (T90 ∼ 10 to 30 s) sensors such as SO 2 and H2S. However, in a volcanic plume environment, Multi-Gas instruments are exposed to very rapidly fluctuating gas concentrations due to turbulent plume eddies. The combination of these effects can introduce measurement errors, emphasizing a need for sensor response modelling approaches for accurate determination of gas ratios from Multi-Gas instruments.
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Tjarda Roberts, Damien Vignelles, Gaetano Giudice, Marco Liuzzo, Alessandro Aiuppa, et al.. In-situ characterisation of aerosol and gases (SO 2 , HCl, ozone) in Mt Etna volcano plume. EGU General Assembly, Apr 2015, Vienne, Austria. pp.EGU2014-10638-3. ⟨insu-01142670⟩

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