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Melilite-bearing lavas in Mayotte (France): An insight into the mantle source below the Comores

Abstract : Ocean island basalts (OIB) from the Comores archipelago (Indian Ocean) display mineralogical and geochemical features different from the other Indian OIB. We present here new geochronological data (40Ar/39Ar), major and trace element compositions and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) ratios of silica-undersaturated alkaline rocks from Mayotte, the oldest island of the Comores. Two trends are defined using major element composition: (1) a highly silica-undersaturated trend which includes basanites, (melilite-bearing) nephelinites, intermediate lavas and phonolites from the southern part of the island and (2) a moderately silica-undersaturated trend which is mainly represented by alkali basalts, basanites, intermediate lavas and phonolites from the northern part of the island. Both trends could be explained, to some extent, by variable degrees of partial melting. Normative larnite-bearing olivine melilitites and nephelinites exhibit, in addition to their high silica-undersaturation, elevated concentrations in CaO (>12wt.%) and P2O5 (up to 1.35wt.%). These exceptional rocks would result from low degree deep partial melting of a CO2-metasomatized source in the presence of carbonate (probably dolomite) and apatite. Igneous rocks from southern and northwestern shield volcanoes are characterized by a radiogenic Pb composition, revealing the existence of a HIMU (high μ=238U/204Pb) component in their source. Its influence decreases from the main building stage (>10.6-~3.0Ma) to the post-shield stage for the benefit of a depleted MORB-mantle (DMM) component, especially in the north central rocks. This feature would reflect increasing melting degrees of the depleted dominant source, bearing small-scale HIMU heterogeneities progressively consumed with time. The HIMU signature might have been introduced in the Comorian lithospheric mantle by thermal erosion or delamination of a continental lithosphere during the Gondwana break-up. The other islands of the Comores archipelago (Moheli, Anjouan and "La Grille" type lavas from Grande Comore) display also a DMM-HIMU mixing trend. Only a few lavas from Grande Comore ("Karthala" type) and one sample from Mayotte show the clear EM1 contribution (87Sr/86Sr>0.7035) of the Comorian plume.
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Anne-Aziliz Pelleter, Martial Caroff, Carole Cordier, Patrick Bachèlery, Pierre Nehlig, et al.. Melilite-bearing lavas in Mayotte (France): An insight into the mantle source below the Comores. Lithos, Elsevier, 2014, 208-209, pp.281-297. ⟨10.1016/j.lithos.2014.09.012⟩. ⟨insu-01089376⟩

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