P. Allard, G. Hammouya, and F. Parello, D??gazage magmatique diffus ?? la Soufri??re de Guadeloupe, Antilles, Comptes Rendus de l'Acad??mie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science, vol.327, issue.5, pp.315-318, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S1251-8050(98)80049-9

R. Antoine, D. Baratoux, M. Rabinowicz, F. Fontaine, P. Bachèlery et al., Thermal infrared image analysis of a quiescent cone on Piton de la Fournaise volcano: Evidence of convective air flow within an unconsolidated soil, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.183, issue.3-4, pp.3-4, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.12.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01241162

M. Aubert, Practical evaluation of steady heat discharge from dormant active volcanoes: case study of Vulcarolo fissure (Mount Etna, Italy), Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.92, issue.3-4, pp.3-4, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00088-8

M. Aubert, S. Diliberto, A. Finizola, and Y. Chébli, Double origin of hydrothermal convective flux variations in the Fossa of Vulcano (Italy), Bulletin of Volcanology, vol.111, issue.B5, pp.743-751, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00445-007-0165-y

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00365117

M. Ball and H. Pinkerton, Factors affecting the accuracy of thermal imaging cameras in volcanology, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.24, issue.B11, p.11203, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2005GL024112

P. Baxter, J. C. Baubron, and R. Coutinho, Health hazards and disaster potential of ground gas emissions at Furnas volcano, S??o Miguel, Azores, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.92, issue.1-2, pp.1-2, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00070-0

F. Beauducel, High-resolution digital elevation model of La Soufrière lava dome. OVSG database, 2001.

A. Beljaars, The parametrization of surface fluxes in large-scale models under free convection, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.90, issue.522, pp.255-270, 1995.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712152203

A. Berk, MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7, 1989.

A. Berk, G. Anderson, L. Bernstein, P. Acharya, H. Dothe et al., MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction, Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, pp.348-353, 1999.
DOI : 10.1117/12.366388

K. Blümel, A Simple Formula for Estimation of the Roughness Length for Heat Transfer over Partly Vegetated Surfaces, Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol.38, issue.6, pp.814-829, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<0814:ASFFEO>2.0.CO;2

G. Boudon, J. Komorowski, B. Villemant, and M. Semet, A new scenario for the last magmatic eruption of La Soufri??re of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles) in 1530 A.D. Evidence from stratigraphy radiocarbon dating and magmatic evolution of erupted products, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.178, issue.3, pp.474-490, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.03.006

T. Brombach, L. Marini, and J. Hunziker, Geochemistry of the thermal springs and fumaroles of Basse-Terre Island, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, Bulletin of Volcanology, vol.61, issue.7, pp.61-477, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00008913

M. Buongiorno, V. Realmuto, and D. Fawzi, Recovery of spectral emissivity from Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner imagery acquired over a mountainous terrain A case study from Mount Etna Sicily, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.79, issue.1, pp.123-133, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0034-4257(01)00246-2

A. Cahill, M. Parlange, and J. Albertson, On the Brutsaert temperature roughness length model for sensible heat flux estimation, Water Resources Research, vol.106, issue.10, pp.2315-2324, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/97WR01638

J. Counehan, Wind tunnel determination of the roughness length as a function of the fetch and the roughness density of three-dimensional roughness elements, Atmospheric Environment (1967), vol.5, issue.8, pp.637-642, 1971.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-6981(71)90120-X

J. Deardorff, Convective Velocity and Temperature Scales for the Unstable Planetary Boundary Layer and for Rayleigh Convection, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.27, issue.8, pp.1211-1213, 1970.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1970)027<1211:CVATSF>2.0.CO;2

M. Dury, T. Theocharous, N. Harrison, N. Fox, and M. Hilton, Common black coatingsreflectance and ageing characteristics in the 0 (mu)m wavelength range, Opt. Commun, vol.270, issue.2, pp.32-46, 2007.

M. Feuillard, C. Allegre, G. Brandeis, R. Gaulon, L. Mouel et al., The 1975?1977 crisis of La Soufrière de Guadeloupe (FWI): a still-born magmatic eruption, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res, vol.16, pp.3-4, 1983.

N. Feuillet, I. Manighetti, and P. Tapponnier, Extension active perpendiculaire ?? la subduction dans l'arc des Petites Antilles (Guadeloupe, Antilles fran??aises), Comptes Rendus de l'Acad??mie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science, vol.333, issue.9, pp.583-590, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1251-8050(01)01543-9

N. Feuillet, I. Manighetti, P. Tapponnier, and E. Jacques, Arc parallel extension and localization of volcanic complexes in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.29, issue.9, pp.2331-2360, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2001JB000308

D. Frank, Hydrothermal processes at Mount Rainier, 1985.

J. Friedman, D. Williams, and D. Frank, Structural and heat flow implications of infrared anomalies at Mt. Hood, Oregon, 1972???1977, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.2, issue.6, pp.2793-2803, 1982.
DOI : 10.1029/JB087iB04p02793

H. Gaonac-'h, J. Vandemeulebrouck, J. Stix, and M. Halbwachs, Thermal infrared satellite measurements of volcanic activity at Stromboli and Vulcano, J. Geophys. Res, issue.B5, pp.99-9477, 1994.

J. Garratt, The atmospheric boundary layer, 1994.

A. Harris and S. Rowland, Effusion rate controls on lava flow length and the role of heat loss: a review, 2009.

A. Harris and D. Stevenson, Thermal observations of degassing open conduits and fumaroles at Stromboli and Vulcano using remotely sensed data, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.76, issue.3-4, pp.175-198, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0377-0273(96)00097-2

A. Harris and D. Stevenson, Magma budgets and steady-state activity of Vulcano and Stromboli, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.64, issue.9, pp.1043-1046, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/97GL00861

A. Harris, L. Lodato, J. Dehn, and L. Spampinato, Thermal characterization of the Vulcano fumarole field, Bulletin of Volcanology, vol.100, issue.B5, pp.441-458, 2009.
DOI : 10.1029/94JB02595

U. Högström, Non-dimensional wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric surface layer: A re-evaluation, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol.4, issue.1-2, pp.55-78, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00119875

F. Kneizys, E. Shettle, W. Gallery, J. Chetwynd, L. Abreu et al., Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6, 1983.
DOI : 10.1117/12.956522

E. Kwor and S. Matte, Emissivity measurements for Nextel Velvet Coating 811-21 between -36????C and 82????C, High Temperatures-High Pressures, vol.33, issue.5, pp.551-556, 2001.
DOI : 10.1068/htwu385

L. Guern, F. Bernard, A. Chevrier, and R. , Soufri??re of guadeloupe 1976???1977 eruption ??? mass and energy transfer and volcanic health hazards, Bulletin Volcanologique, vol.35, issue.B4, pp.577-593, 1980.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02597694

H. Lettau, Note on aerodynamic roughness-parameter estimation on the basis of roughness-element description Research and Development, pp.828-832, 1969.

R. Lowell, Modeling continental and submarine hydrothermal systems, Reviews of Geophysics, vol.20, issue.1, pp.457-476, 1991.
DOI : 10.1029/91RG01080

E. Luna, A. Córdova, A. Medina, and F. Higuera, Convection in a finite tilted fracture in a rock, Physics Letters A, vol.300, issue.4-5, pp.4-5, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0375-9601(02)00755-7

. Fig, Calibration curves of the thermal camera, representing the difference between the target real temperature and the measured temperature. The difference from the raw temperature compared to the real one is 5 K. However, the two calibrations curves show a very good agreement together

R. Macdonald, R. Griffiths, and D. Hall, An improved method for the estimation of surface roughness of obstacle arrays, Atmospheric Environment, vol.32, issue.11, pp.1857-1864, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00403-2

P. Mascart, J. Noilhan, and H. Giordani, A modified parameterization of flux-profile relationships in the surface layer using different roughness length values for heat and momentum, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol.117, issue.4, pp.331-344, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00708998

N. Matsushima, K. Kazahaya, G. Saito, and H. Shinohara, Mass and heat flux of volcanic gas discharging from the summit crater of Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan, during 1996???1999, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.126, issue.3-4, p.285, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00152-5

A. Neri, A local heat transfer analysis of lava cooling in the atmosphere: application to thermal diffusion-dominated lava flows, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.81, issue.3-4, pp.215-243, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0377-0273(98)00010-9

F. Nicollin, D. Gibert, F. Beauducel, G. Boudon, and J. Komorowski, Electrical tomography of La Soufri??re of Guadeloupe Volcano: Field experiments, 1D inversion and qualitative interpretation, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.244, issue.3-4, pp.709-724, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.02.020

K. Noguchi and H. Kamiya, Prediction of volcanic eruption by measuring the chemical composition and amounts of gases, Bulletin Volcanologique, vol.26, issue.1, pp.367-378, 1963.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02597298

C. Oppenheimer, Infrared surveillance of crater lakes using satellite data, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.55, issue.1-2, pp.117-128, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0377-0273(93)90093-7

P. Owen and W. Thomson, Heat transfer across rough surfaces, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.145, issue.03, pp.321-334, 1963.
DOI : 10.1017/S0022112063000288

A. Peltier, A. Finizola, G. Douillet, E. Brothelande, and E. Garaebiti, Structure of an active volcano associated with a resurgent block inferred from thermal mapping: The Yasur???Yenkahe volcanic complex (Vanuatu), Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.243, issue.244, pp.243-244, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.06.022

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01148219

D. Pieri and M. Abrams, ASTER observations of thermal anomalies preceding the April 2003 eruption of Chikurachki volcano, Kurile Islands, Russia, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.99, issue.1-2, pp.84-94, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2005.06.012

J. Pozzi, J. Mouël, J. Rossignol, and J. Zlotnicki, Magnetic observations made on la soufriere volcano (guadeloupe) during the 1976???1977 crisis, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.5, issue.3-4, pp.217-237, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0377-0273(79)90017-9

H. Pruppacher, J. Klett, and P. Wang, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, Aerosol Science and Technology, vol.28, issue.4, 1998.
DOI : 10.1080/02786829808965531

M. Rabinowicz, J. Sempéré, and P. Genthon, Thermal convection in a vertical permeable slot: Implications for hydrothermal circulation along mid-ocean ridges, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.46, issue.B12, pp.29275-29292, 1999.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JB900259

M. Rodriguez, An overview on the seismicity of Cuba, Journal of Seismology, vol.2, issue.4, pp.323-335, 1998.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1009768002030

H. Schlichting, Boundary layer theory, 1968.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-662-52919-5

M. Sekioka and K. Yuhara, Heat flux estimation in geothermal areas based on the heat balance of the ground surface, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.79, issue.14, pp.2053-2058, 1974.
DOI : 10.1029/JB079i014p02053

M. Sheridan, Pyroclastic block flow from the September, 1976, eruption of La Soufri??re volcano, Guadeloupe, Bulletin Volcanologique, vol.40, issue.1, pp.397-402, 1980.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02598040

W. Smith, THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF DRY SOIL, Soil Science, vol.53, issue.6, pp.435-460, 1942.
DOI : 10.1097/00010694-194206000-00003

L. Spampinato, S. Calvari, C. Oppenheimer, and E. Boschi, Volcano surveillance using infrared cameras, Earth-Science Reviews, vol.106, issue.1-2, pp.63-91, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.01.003

Z. Su, T. Schmugge, W. Kustas, and W. Massman, An Evaluation of Two Models for Estimation of the Roughness Height for Heat Transfer between the Land Surface and the Atmosphere, Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol.40, issue.11, pp.40-1933, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<1933:AEOTMF>2.0.CO;2

S. Taylor, Measured Emissivity of Soils in the Southeast United States, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.8, issue.4, pp.359-364, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0034-4257(79)90035-X

A. Verhoef, H. De-bruin, and B. Van-den-hurk, for Sparse Vegetation, Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol.36, issue.5, pp.560-572, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0450(1997)036<0560:SPNOTP>2.0.CO;2

R. Wright, S. Blake, A. Harris, and D. Rothery, A simple explanation for the space-based calculation of lava eruption rates, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.192, issue.2, pp.223-233, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00443-5

K. Yuhara, M. Sekioka, and S. Ehara, Infrarotmessungen auf der Satsuma-iwojima Insel, Kagoshima, in Japan mit einer von einem Hubschrauber getragenen Thermo-Kamera, Archiv f??r Meteorologie, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie Serie A, vol.28, issue.2, pp.171-181, 1978.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02246693

K. Yuhara, S. Ehara, and K. Tagomori, Estimation of heat discharge rates using infrared measurements by a helicopter-borne thermocamera over the geothermal areas of Unzen volcano, Japan, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.9, issue.1, pp.99-109, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0377-0273(81)90017-2