M. Abdelsalam, A. Youssef, S. Arafat, and M. And-alfarhan, Rise and demise of the New Lakes of Sahara, Geosphere, pp.375-38610, 1130.

R. Abileah and S. Vignudelli, A completely remote sensing approach to monitoring reservoirs water volume, International Water Technology Journal, vol.1, pp.59-72, 2011.

D. Altinbilek, The Role of Dams in Development, International Journal of Water Resources Development, vol.18, issue.1, pp.9-24, 2002.
DOI : 10.1596/0-8213-1036-4

R. Alkama, B. Decharme, H. Douville, M. Becker, A. Cazenave et al., Global Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrological System. Part I: Comparison to GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Estimates and In Situ River Discharges, Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol.11, issue.3, pp.583-60010, 2010.
DOI : 10.1175/2010JHM1211.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00990912

A. Aly, K. Froehlich, A. Nada, M. Awad, M. Hamza et al., Study of environmental isotope distribution in the Aswan High Dam Lake (Egypt) for estimation of evaporation of lake water and its recharge to adjacent groundwater, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, vol.1, issue.1, pp.37-49, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00146291

M. Becker, W. Llovel, A. Cazenave, A. Guntner, C. et al., Recent hydrological behavior of the East African great lakes region inferred from GRACE, satellite altimetry and rainfall observations, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, vol.342, issue.3, pp.223-233, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.crte.2009.12.010

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00634223

S. Bettadpur, Level-2 Gravity Field Product User Handbook, The GRACE Project, pp.327-734, 2007.

S. Biancamaria, K. Andreadis, M. Durand, E. Clark, E. Rodriguez et al., Preliminary Characterization of SWOT Hydrology Error Budget and Global Capabilities, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol.3, issue.1, pp.6-1910, 2009.
DOI : 10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2034614

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00575488

A. Biswas and C. Tortajada, Development and Large Dams: A Global Perspective, International Journal of Water Resources Development, vol.17, issue.1, pp.9-21, 2001.
DOI : 10.1080/07900620120025024

J. Boy and B. Chao, Time-variable gravity signal during the water impoundment of China's Three-Gorges Reservoir, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.76, issue.24, pp.10-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2002GL016457

S. Bruinsma, J. Lemoine, R. Biancale, and N. Vales, CNES/GRGS 10-day gravity field models (release 2) and their evaluation, Advances in Space Research, vol.45, issue.4, pp.587-601, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2009.10.012

J. F. Cretaux, A. V. Kouraev, F. Papa, M. Berge-nguyen, A. Cazenave et al., Evolution of Sea Level of the Big Aral Sea from Satellite Altimetry and Its Implications for Water Balance, Journal of Great Lakes Research, vol.31, issue.4, pp.520-534, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S0380-1330(05)70281-1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00280293

J. F. Cretaux, S. Calmant, V. Romanovski, A. Shabunin, F. Lyard et al., An absolute calibration site for radar altimeters in the continental domain: Lake Issykkul in Central Asia, Journal of Geodesy, vol.27, issue.C7, pp.723-73510, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00190-008-0289-7

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00409135

J. F. Cretaux, W. Jelinski, S. Calmant, A. Kouraev, V. Vuglinski et al., SOLS: A lake database to monitor in the Near Real Time water level and storage variations from remote sensing data, Advances in Space Research, vol.47, issue.9, pp.1497-1507, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2011.01.004

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00980033

P. Döll, F. Kaspar, and B. Lehner, A global hydrological model for deriving water availability indicators: model tuning and validation, Journal of Hydrology, vol.270, issue.1-2, pp.105-13410, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-1694(02)00283-4

P. Döll, H. Hoffmann-dobrev, F. T. Portmann, S. Siebert, A. Eicker et al., Impact of water withdrawals from groundwater and surface water on continental water storage variations, Journal of Geodynamics, vol.59, issue.60, pp.143-156, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jog.2011.05.001

D. R. Easterling, G. A. Meehl, C. Parmesan, S. A. Changnon, T. R. Karl et al., Climate Extremes: Observations, Modeling, and Impacts, Science, vol.289, issue.5487, pp.2068-2074, 2000.
DOI : 10.1126/science.289.5487.2068

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

W. Feng, M. Zhong, J. Lemoine, R. Biancale, H. Hsu et al., Evaluation of groundwater depletion in North China using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data and ground-based measurements, Water Resources Research, vol.54, issue.5, pp.2110-2118, 2013.
DOI : 10.1029/2006WR005374

F. Frappart, F. Papa, A. Guntner, S. Werth, J. S. Da-silva et al., Satellite-based estimates of groundwater storage variations in large drainage basins with extensive floodplains, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.115, issue.6, pp.1588-1594, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2011.02.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00582647

W. Gossel, A. Ebraheem, A. M. Sefelnasr, and P. Wycisk, A GIS-based flow model for groundwater resources management in the development areas in the eastern Sahara, Africa. In: Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa. IAH Selected Papers on Hydrogeology, vol.13, pp.43-64, 2008.

A. Güntner, Improvement of Global Hydrological Models Using GRACE Data, Surveys in Geophysics, vol.21, issue.12, pp.375-397, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s10712-008-9038-y

M. Hunger and P. Döll, Value of river discharge data for globalscale hydrological modeling, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, vol.125194, issue.10, pp.841-861, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00298912

J. Jongerden, Dams and Politics in Turkey: Utilizing Water, Developing Conflict, Middle East Policy Volume, pp.137-143, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1475-4967.2010.00432.x

C. Jones, M. Sultan, E. Yan, A. Milewski, M. Hussein et al., Hydrologic impacts of engineering projects on the Tigris???Euphrates system and its marshlands, Journal of Hydrology, vol.353, issue.1-2, pp.59-75, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.01.029

F. W. Landerer and S. C. Swenson, Accuracy of scaled GRACE terrestrial water storage estimates, Water Resources Research, vol.33, issue.B12, pp.10-1029, 2012.
DOI : 10.1029/2005GL025305

J. Lemoine, S. Bruinsma, S. Loyer, R. Biancale, J. Marty et al., Temporal gravity field models inferred from GRACE data, Advances in Space Research, vol.39, issue.10, pp.1620-1629, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2007.03.062

J. G. Liu and H. Yang, Spatially explicit assessment of global consumptive water uses in cropland: Green and blue water, Journal of Hydrology, vol.384, issue.3-4, pp.187-197, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.11.024

L. Longuevergne, B. R. Scanlon, W. , and C. R. , GRACE Hydrological estimates for small basins: Evaluating processing approaches on the High Plains Aquifer, USA, Water Resources Research, vol.9, issue.1-2, pp.10-1029, 2010.
DOI : 10.1175/2007JHM951.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00708088

G. Mutin, L'eau dans le monde arabe Mise à jour de la première édition. Paris, Ellipses Édition Marketing SA Carrefours de Géographie " )., Études rurales, pp.155-156, 2000.

C. Milzow, P. E. Krogh, and P. Bauer-gottwein, Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for hydrological model calibration in a large poorly gauged catchment, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.15, issue.6, pp.1729-174310, 1729.
DOI : 10.5194/hess-15-1729-2011

T. Oki and Y. C. Sud, Design of Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) ? A global river channel network, Earth Interactions , Available, vol.2, 1998.

F. Papa, C. Prigent, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow et al., Interannual variability of surface water extent at the global scale, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos, vol.115, pp.1211110-1029, 1993.

Y. N. Pokhrel, N. Hanasaki, P. J. Yeh, T. J. Yamada, S. Kanae et al., Model estimates of sea-level change due to??anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial water??storage, Nature Geoscience, vol.44, issue.6, pp.389-39210, 1038.
DOI : 10.1038/ngeo1476

L. Longuevergne, The global land data assimilation system, Am. Meteorol. Soc, vol.85, pp.381-39410, 2004.

M. Rodell, I. Velicogna, and J. S. Famiglietti, Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India, Nature, vol.171, issue.7258, pp.999-980, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nature08238

D. D. Rowlands, S. B. Luthcke, J. J. Mccarthy, S. M. Klosko, D. S. Chinn et al., Global mass flux solutions from GRACE: A comparison of parameter estimation strategies???Mass concentrations versus Stokes coefficients, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.35, issue.26, p.140310, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2009JB006546

M. F. Sadek, M. M. Shahin, and C. J. Stigter, Evaporation from the reservoir of the High Aswan Dam, Egypt: A new comparison of relevant methods with limited data, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol.85, issue.1-2, pp.57-6610, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00863783

B. R. Scanlon, C. C. Faunt, L. Longuevergne, R. C. Reedy, W. M. Alley et al., Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.105, issue.47, pp.9320-9325, 2012.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0805554105

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00710431

B. R. Scanlon, L. Longuevergne, and D. Long, Ground referencing GRACE satellite estimates of groundwater storage changes in the California Central Valley, USA, Water Resources Research, vol.42, issue.B9, p.10, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2006WR005374

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00710434

R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, C. Dahle et al., Hydrological Signals Observed by the GRACE Satellites, Surveys in Geophysics, vol.59, issue.8, pp.319-33410, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s10712-008-9033-3

M. Shamsudduha, R. G. Taylor, and L. Longuevergne, Monitoring groundwater storage changes in the highly seasonal humid tropics: Validation of GRACE measurements in the Bengal Basin, Water Resources Research, vol.42, issue.2, p.10, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2006WR005374

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00708224

S. Siebert, J. Burke, J. M. Faures, K. Frenken, J. Hoogeveen et al., Groundwater use for irrigation ? a global inventory, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, vol.145194, pp.1863-188010, 1863.
DOI : 10.5194/hessd-7-3977-2010

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-7-3977-2010

A. Singh, F. Seitz, and C. Schwatke, Inter-annual water storage changes in the Aral Sea from multi-mission satellite altimetry, optical remote sensing, and GRACE satellite gravimetry, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.123, pp.187-195, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2012.01.001

F. J. Simons, F. A. Dahlen, and M. A. Wieczorek, Spatiospectral Concentration on a Sphere, SIAM Review, vol.48, issue.3, pp.504-53610, 2006.
DOI : 10.1137/S0036144504445765

URL : http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0408424

M. Sultan, N. Sturchio, F. A. Hassan, M. A. Hamdan, A. M. Mahmood et al., Precipitation Source Inferred from Stable Isotopic Composition of Pleistocene Groundwater and Carbonate Deposits in the Western Desert of Egypt, Quaternary Research, vol.38, issue.01, pp.29-3710, 1907.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-0182(94)90085-X

S. Swenson and J. Wahr, Post-processing removal of correlated errors in GRACE data, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.31, issue.20, pp.10-1029, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2005GL025285

S. Swenson and J. Wahr, Monitoring the water balance of Lake Victoria, East Africa, from space, Journal of Hydrology, vol.370, issue.1-4, pp.163-176, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.03.008

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, and M. M. Watkins, GRACE Measurements of Mass Variability in the Earth System, Science, vol.305, issue.5683, pp.503-505, 2004.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1099192

V. M. Tiwari, J. Wahr, and S. Swenson, Dwindling groundwater resources in northern India, from satellite gravity observations, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.103, issue.18, pp.10-1029, 2009.
DOI : 10.1029/2009GL039401

N. M. Velpuri, G. B. Senay, and K. O. Asante, A multi-source satellite data approach for modelling Lake Turkana water level: calibration and validation using satellite altimetry data, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.16, issue.1, pp.1-1810, 2012.
DOI : 10.5194/hess-16-1-2012

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-1-2012

J. Vergnes and B. Decharme, A simple groundwater scheme in the TRIP river routing model: global off-line evaluation against GRACE terrestrial water storage estimates and observed river discharges, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, vol.165194, pp.3889-390810, 2012.

K. A. Voss, J. S. Famiglietti, M. H. Lo, C. De-linage, M. Rodell et al., Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region, Water Resources Research, vol.27, issue.6, pp.904-914, 2013.
DOI : 10.1080/01436590600850467

Y. Wada, L. P. Van-beek, C. M. Van-kempen, J. Reckman, S. Vasak et al., Global depletion of groundwater resources, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.131, issue.3, p.10, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2010GL044571

J. Wahr, M. Molenaar, and F. Bryan, Time variability of the Earth's gravity field: Hydrological and oceanic effects and their possible detection using GRACE, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.303, issue.4, pp.30205-3022910, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/98JB02844

X. W. Wang, C. De-linage, J. Famiglietti, and C. S. Zender, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) detection of water storage changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir of China and comparison with in situ measurements, Water Resources Research, vol.54, issue.5, pp.10-1029, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.04.004

S. Werth and A. Guntner, Calibration analysis for water storage variability of the global hydrological model WGHM, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.14, issue.1, pp.59-78, 2010.
DOI : 10.5194/hess-14-59-2010

L. Xavier, M. Becker, A. Cazenave, L. Longuevergne, W. Llovel et al., Interannual variability in water storage over 2003???2008 in the Amazon Basin from GRACE space gravimetry, in situ river level and precipitation data, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.114, issue.8, pp.1629-1637, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2010.02.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00708050

H. Xie, L. Longuevergne, C. Ringler, and B. R. Scanlon, Calibration and evaluation of a semi-distributed watershed model of Sub-Saharan Africa using GRACE data, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, vol.165194, pp.3083-309910, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00787159

S. Z. Yirdaw, K. R. Snelgrove, and C. O. Agboma, GRACE satellite observations of terrestrial moisture changes for drought characterization in the Canadian Prairie, Journal of Hydrology, vol.356, issue.1-2, pp.84-92, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.04.004

W. Bank, The World's Experience with Large Dams: A Preliminary Review of Impacts, 1998.