Effect of sonication conditions: solvent, time, temperature and reactor type on the preparation of micron sized vermiculite particles

Abstract : The effects of temperature, time, solvent and sonication conditions under air and Argon are described for the preparation of micron and sub-micron sized vermiculite particles in a double-jacketed Rosett-type or cylindrical reactor. The resulting materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, BET surface area analysis, chemical analysis (elemental analysis), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and Laser Granulometry. The sonicated vermiculites displayed modified particle morphologies and reduced sizes (observed by scanning electron microscopy and laser granulometry). Under the conditions used in this work, sub-micron sized particles were obtained after 5 h of sonication, whereas longer times promoted aggregation again. Laser granulometry data revealed also that the smallest particles were obtained at high temperature while it is generally accepted that the mechanical effects of ultrasound are optimum at low temperatures according to physical/chemical properties of the used solvent. X-ray diffraction results indicated a reduction of the crystallite size along the basal direction [001]; but structural changes were not observed. Sonication at different conditions also led to surface modifications of the vermiculite particles brought out by BET surface measurements and Infrared Spectroscopy. The results indicated clearly that the efficiency of ultrasound irradiation was significantly affected by different parameters such as temperature, solvent, type of gas and reactor type.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 24, 2013 - 4:19:59 PM
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F. Ali, L. Reinert, Jean-Marc Lévêque, L. Duclaux, Fabrice Muller, et al.. Effect of sonication conditions: solvent, time, temperature and reactor type on the preparation of micron sized vermiculite particles. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Elsevier, 2014, 21, pp.1002-1009. ⟨10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.10.010⟩. ⟨insu-00876251⟩

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