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Storage conditions and eruptive dynamics of central versus flank eruptions in volcanic islands: the case of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

Abstract : We report the results of phase equilibrium experiments on a phonolite produced during one of the most voluminous flank eruptions (ca. 1 km3) of the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife Island). Combined with previous experimental and volcanological data we address the factors that control the structure of the phonolitic plumbing system of Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes. The Roques Blancos phonolite erupted ca 1800 BP and contains ~ 14 wt % phenocrysts, mainly anorthoclase, biotite, magnetite, diopside and lesser amounts of ilmenite. Crystallization experiments were performed at temperatures of 900ºC, 850ºC and 800ºC, in the pressure range 200 MPa to 50 MPa. The oxygen fugacity (fO2) was varied between NNO+0.3 (0.3 log units above to the Ni-NiO solid buffer) to NNO-2, whilst dissolved water contents varied from 7 wt% to 1.5 wt%. The comparison between natural and experimental phase proportions and compositions, including glass, indicates that the phonolite magma was stored prior to eruption at 900±15ºC, 50±15MPa, with about 2.2 wt% H2O dissolved in the melt, at an oxygen fugacity of NNO-0.5 (± 0.5). The difference in composition between the rim and the cores of the natural anorthoclase phenocrysts suggests that the phonolite was heated by about 50ºC before the eruption, upon intrusion of a hotter tephriphonolitic magma. The comparison between the storage conditions of Roques Blancos and those inferred for other phonolites of the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex shows that flank eruptions are fed by reservoirs located at relatively shallow depths (1-2 km) compared to those feeding Teide central eruptions (5 km).
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Joan Andújar, Fidel Costa, Bruno Scaillet. Storage conditions and eruptive dynamics of central versus flank eruptions in volcanic islands: the case of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Elsevier, 2013, 260, pp.62-79. ⟨10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.05.004⟩. ⟨insu-00827722⟩

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