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Sélection de marqueurs microbiologiques et chimiques de traçage des sources microbiennes. Application à des eaux de rivière potentiellement contaminées par des rejets ponctuels ou diffus en France

Abstract : In the context of the 2006/7/EC directive requiring to establish a profile for each bathing water, with the identification and hierarchization of faecal pollution sources, six French research laboratories have worked together to develop a Microbial Source Tracking (MST) toolbox including microbial and chemical markers to determine the human and animal origin of surface water contaminations. Following technical developments, 14 markers were shortlisted: two ratios of concentrations of faecal steroids (coprostanol/(coprostanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol) and sitostanol/coprostanol), two ratios of organic matter fluorescence (GFI and bio/geo), caffeine, benzophenone, TCEP, human (II and III) and animal genogroups (I and IV) of F-specific RNA bacteriophages, five bacterial genetic markers relating to the Bacteroidales order and human (HF183)-, ruminant (Rum-2-Bac)- and pig (Pig-2-Bac)-specific, as well as human-specific Bifidobacterium adolescentis and pig-specific Lactobacillus amylovorus. All these markers were applied on ten waters impacted by faecal pollution from known (human and animal) sources and on 45 surface waters of which 15 were located upstream from two bathing areas. The results of this study show that the MST toolbox could be only used when the level of the faecal contamination is sufficiently high. In fact, usable results were obtained only when Escherichia coli concentrations were higher than 500 MPN (Most Probable Number) per 100 mL water using che mical markers, and quantified results were obtained by the microbial markers generally when E. coli concentrations were higher than 1 000 MPN per 100 mL water. The statistical analyses highlighted, in most cases, a mixed (human and animal) contamination which is explained by geographical context of areas crossed by studied water (presence of bovine pasture and outfalls of sewage treatment plants). Among the 14 markers, five were found to be weakly discriminating or lacking sensitivity. It is thus possible to reduce the toolbox to nine markers which are the two faecal steroid ratios, caffeine, TCEP, the human (II and III) genogroups of F-specific RNA bacteriophages, the three Bacteroidales markers HF183, Rum-2-Bac and Pig-2-Bac and L. amylovorus.
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https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00796513
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Submitted on : Monday, March 4, 2013 - 1:44:33 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:16:38 AM

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Anne-Marie Pourcher, Emilie Jardé, Marie-Paule Caprais, N. Wéry, Alain Jadas-Hécart, et al.. Sélection de marqueurs microbiologiques et chimiques de traçage des sources microbiennes. Application à des eaux de rivière potentiellement contaminées par des rejets ponctuels ou diffus en France. Techniques Sciences Méthodes , ASTEE/EDP Sciences, 2012, pp.43-55. ⟨10.1051/tsm/201203043⟩. ⟨insu-00796513⟩

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