Trachyte phase relations and implication for magma storage conditions in the Chaîne des Puys (French Massif Central).

Abstract : Petrological data have been acquired on the natural trachytes from the Chaîne des Puys, French Massif Central, and on experimental products from phase equilibria in order to (i) constrain the storage conditions of the trachytic magmas that lead to explosive eruptions (dome destructions as block-and-ash flows or pumice-and-ash flows) and (ii) provide phase relationships and chemical compositions for differentiated alkaline liquids in intraplate continental context. Phase assemblages, proportions, and compositions have been determined on six trachytes with SiO2 contents varying from 62 to 69 wt % and alkali contents of 10.5-12.0 wt %. The samples contain up to 30 % of phenocrysts, mainly consisting of feldspar (15-17 %; plagioclase and/or alkali-feldspar), biotite (2-6 %; except in the SiO2-poorest sample), Fe-Ti oxides (1-3 %) ± amphibole (< 5 %), ± clinopyroxene (~1 %). All samples have apatite and zircon as minor phases and titanite has been found in one sample. Pristine glasses (melt inclusions or residual glasses) in pumice from explosive events are trachytic to rhyolitic (65-73 wt % SiO2 and 10.5-13.0 wt % alkali). H2O dissolved in melt inclusions and the biotite+alkali feldspar+magnetite hygrobarometer both suggest pre-eruptive H2O contents up to 8 wt %. These are so far the highest H2O contents ever reported for alkaline liquids in an intraplate continental context. Melt inclusions also contain ~3400 ppm chlorine, ~700 ppm fluorine, and ~300 ppm sulphur. Crystallisation experiments of the six trachytes have been performed between 200 and 400 MPa, 700 and 900°C, H2O saturation, and oxygen fugacity of NNO +1. The comparison between the natural and experimental phase assemblage, proportion, and composition suggests magma storage conditions at a pressure of 300-350 MPa (~10-12 km deep), melt H2O content ~8 wt % (close to saturation), an oxygen fugacity close to NNO~0.5, and temperatures increasing from 700 to 825°C with decreasing bulk SiO2 of the trachyte. The high H2O contents of the trachytes show that wet conditions may prevail during the differentiation of continental alkaline series. Regardless of the size of the magma reservoir assumed to have fed the trachyte eruptions, calculation of the thermal relaxation timescales indicates that the tapped reservoir(s) are likely to be still partially molten nowadays. The four northernmost edifices may correspond to a single large reservoir with a lateral extension of up to 10 km, which could be possibly reactivated in weeks to months if intercepted by new rising basalt batches.
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Caroline Martel, Rémi Champallier, Gaëlle Prouteau, Michel Pichavant, Laurent Arbaret, et al.. Trachyte phase relations and implication for magma storage conditions in the Chaîne des Puys (French Massif Central).. Journal of Petrology, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2013, 54 (6), pp.1071-1107. ⟨10.1093/petrology/egt006⟩. ⟨insu-00779642⟩

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