D. M. Akob, H. J. Mills, and J. E. Kostka, Metabolically active microbial communities in uranium-contaminated subsurface sediments, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.59, issue.1, pp.95-107, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00203.x

K. Alain, B. J. Tindall, L. Intertaglia, P. Catala, and P. Lebaron, Hellea balneolensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a prosthecate alphaproteobacterium from the Mediterranean Sea, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY, vol.58, issue.11, pp.2511-2519, 2008.
DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.65424-0

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00561108

K. Alain, N. Callac, M. Ciobanu, Y. Reynaud, F. Duthoit et al., DNA extractions from deep subseafloor sediments: Novel cryogenic-mill-based procedure and comparison to existing protocols, Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol.87, issue.3, pp.355-362, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mimet.2011.09.015

URL : http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00056/16691/14364.pdf

R. B. Alley, J. Marotzke, W. D. Nordhaus, J. T. Overpeck, D. M. Peteet et al., Abrupt Climate Change, Science, vol.299, issue.5615, pp.2005-2010, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1081056

S. F. Altschul, W. Gish, W. Miller, E. W. Myers, and D. J. Lipman, Basic local alignment search tool, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.215, issue.3, pp.403-41010, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2

E. Bard, F. Rostek, J. L. Turon, and S. Gendreau, Hydrological Impact of Heinrich Events in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic, Science, vol.289, issue.5483, pp.1321-1324, 2000.
DOI : 10.1126/science.289.5483.1321

A. Batzke, B. Engelen, H. Sass, C. , and H. , Phylogenetic and Physiological Diversity of Cultured Deep-Biosphere Bacteria from Equatorial Pacific Ocean and Peru Margin Sediments, Geomicrobiology Journal, vol.96, issue.3-4, pp.261-273, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.793008

G. Bayon, C. Pierre, J. Etoubleau, M. Voisset, E. Cauquil et al., Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in Niger Delta sediments: Implications for authigenic carbonate genesis in cold seep environments, Marine Geology, vol.241, issue.1-4, pp.93-109, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.margeo.2007.03.007

J. Baztan, S. Berne, J. L. Olivet, M. Rabineau, D. Aslanian et al., Axial incision: The key to understand submarine canyon evolution (in the western Gulf of Lion), Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol.22, issue.6-7, pp.805-826, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2005.03.011

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00112097

C. Beaudouin, J. Suc, N. Acherki, L. Courtois, M. Rabineau et al., Palynology of the northwestern Mediterranean shelf (Gulf of Lions): First vegetational record for the last climatic cycle, Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol.22, issue.6-7, pp.845-863, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2005.03.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00179455

C. Beaudouin, G. L. Jouet, J. P. Suc, S. Berne, and G. Escarguela, Vegetation dynamics in southern France during the last 30kyBP in the light of marine palynology, Quaternary Science Reviews, vol.26, issue.7-8, pp.1037-1054, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.12.009

M. Beck, T. Riedel, J. Graue, J. Köster, N. Kowalski et al., Imprint of past and present environmental conditions on microbiology and biogeochemistry of coastal Quaternary sediments, Biogeosciences, vol.8, issue.1, pp.55-6810, 2011.
DOI : 10.5194/bg-8-55-2011

R. Benner, What happens to terrestrial organic matter in the ocean?, Marine Chemistry, vol.92, issue.1-4, pp.307-310, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.marchem.2004.06.033

G. Bond, H. Heinrich, W. Broecker, L. Labeyrie, J. Mcmanus et al., Evidence for massive discharges of icebergs into the North Atlantic ocean during the last glacial period, Nature, vol.360, issue.6401, pp.245-24910360245, 1038.
DOI : 10.1038/360245a0

A. M. Bruun, K. Finster, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, P. Nornberg, and M. W. Friedrich, A Comprehensive Investigation on Iron Cycling in a Freshwater Seep Including Microscopy, Cultivation and Molecular Community Analysis, Geomicrobiology Journal, vol.25, issue.1, pp.15-34, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00992910

E. O. Casamayor, H. Schäfer, L. Baneras, C. Pedros-alio, and G. Muyzer, Identification of and Spatio-Temporal Differences between Microbial Assemblages from Two Neighboring Sulfurous Lakes: Comparison by Microscopy and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.66, issue.2, pp.499-508, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.66.2.499-508.2000

G. Cauwet, Non-living particulate matter, in: Marine Organic Chemistry ? Evolution, Composition, Interactions and Chemistry of Organic Matter in Seawater, pp.71-89, 1981.

P. U. Clark, A. M. Mccabe, A. C. Mix, and A. J. Weaver, Rapid Rise of Sea Level 19,000 Years Ago and Its Global Implications, Science, vol.304, issue.5674, pp.1141-1144, 2004.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1094449

M. J. Coolen and J. Overmann, 217 000-year-old DNA sequences of green sulfur bacteria in Mediterranean sapropels and their implications for the reconstruction of the paleoenvironment, Environmental Microbiology, vol.62, issue.1, pp.238-249, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cub.2003.12.012

R. Cord-ruwish, A quick method for the determination of dissolved and precipitated sulfides in cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria, Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol.4, issue.1, pp.33-36, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-7012(85)90005-3

D. 'hondt, S. Jørgensen, B. B. Miller, D. J. Batzke, A. Blake et al., Distributions of Microbial Activities in Deep Subseafloor Sediments, Science, vol.306, issue.5705, pp.2216-222157052216, 2004.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1101155

E. F. Delong, Archaea in coastal marine environments., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, pp.5685-5689, 1992.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.89.12.5685

E. Maghraoui, M. Joron, J. L. Etoubleau, J. Cambon, P. Treuil et al., Determination of Forty Four Major and Trace Elements in GPMA Magmatic Rock Reference Materials using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, vol.14, issue.1, pp.59-68, 1999.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1751-908X.1999.tb00559.x

B. Engelen, K. Ziegelmueller, L. Wolf, B. Kopke, A. Gittel et al., Fluids from the Oceanic Crust Support Microbial Activities within the Deep Biosphere, Fluids from the oceanic crust support microbial activities within the deep biosphere, pp.56-66, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00225.x

S. A. Fish, T. J. Shepherd, T. J. Mcgenity, and W. D. Grant, Recovery of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments from ancient halite, Nature, vol.417, issue.6887, pp.432-43610, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/417432a

N. Fromin, J. Hamelin, S. Tarnawski, D. Roesti, K. Jourdain-miserez et al., Statistical analysis of denaturing gel electrophoresis (DGE) fingerprinting patterns, Environmental Microbiology, vol.35, issue.11, pp.634-643, 2002.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1462-2920.2002.00358.x

J. C. Fry, R. J. Parkes, B. A. Cragg, A. J. Weightman, and G. Webster, Prokaryotic biodiversity and activity in the deep subseafloor biosphere, Prokaryotic biodiversity and activity in the deep subseafloor biosphere, pp.181-196, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2008.00566.x

C. S. Fulthorpe, K. Hoyanagi, P. Blum, and E. Scientists, Methods: Geochemistry and microbiology, Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, pp.22-23, 2011.

G. M. Gadd, Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation, Microbiology, vol.156, issue.3, pp.609-643, 2010.
DOI : 10.1099/mic.0.037143-0

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

G. P. Gafan and D. A. Spratt, Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gel expansion (DGGEGE) ?????? An attempt to resolve the limitations of co-migration in the DGGE of complex polymicrobial communities, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol.253, issue.2, pp.303-307, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.femsle.2005.09.048

C. Gaillard and F. Strauss, Ethanol precipitation of DNA with linear polyacrylamide as carrier, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.18, issue.2, pp.378-378, 1990.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/18.2.378

J. F. Ghiglione, C. Palacios, J. C. Marty, G. Mével, C. Labrune et al., Role of environmental factors for the vertical distribution (0?1000 m) of marine bacterial communities in the NW Mediterranean Sea, Biogeosciences, vol.55194, pp.1751-176410, 1751.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00330300

M. Gomila, B. Bowien, E. Falsen, E. R. Moore, and J. Lalucat, Description of Pelomonas aquatica sp. nov. and Pelomonas puraquae sp. nov., isolated from industrial and haemodialysis water, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY, vol.57, issue.11, pp.2629-2635, 2007.
DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.65149-0

J. I. Hedges, R. G. Keil, and R. Benner, What happens to terrestrial organic matter in the ocean?, Organic Geochemistry, vol.27, issue.5-6, pp.195-21210, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0146-6380(97)00066-1

S. K. Heijs, A. M. Laverman, L. J. Forney, P. R. Hardoim, and J. D. Van-elsas, Comparison of deep-sea sediment microbial communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.64, issue.3, pp.362-377, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2008.00463.x

H. Heinrich, Origin and Consequences of Cyclic Ice Rafting in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean During the Past 130,000 Years, Quaternary Research, vol.34, issue.02, pp.142-15210, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01449756

M. Hinderer, Late Quaternary denudation of the Alps, valley and lake fillings and 774 modern river loads, Geodinamica Acta, vol.14, pp.231-263, 2001.

P. Hugenholtz, B. M. Goebel, P. , and N. R. , Impact of cultureindependent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity, J. Bacteriol, vol.180, issue.180, pp.6793-6793, 1998.

K. A. Hughen, J. R. Southon, S. J. Lehman, and J. T. Overpeck, Synchronous Radiocarbon and Climate Shifts During the Last Deglaciation, Science, vol.290, issue.5498, 1951.
DOI : 10.1126/science.290.5498.1951

F. Inagaki, M. Suzuki, K. Takai, H. Oida, T. Sakamoto et al., Microbial Communities Associated with Geological Horizons in Coastal Subseafloor Sediments from the Sea of Okhotsk, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.69, issue.12, pp.7224-7235, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.69.12.7224-7235.2003

F. Inagaki, H. Okada, A. I. Tsapin, N. , and K. H. , MICROBIAL SURVIVAL: The Paleome: A Sedimentary Genetic Record of Past Microbial Communities, Astrobiology, vol.5, issue.2, pp.141-153, 2005.
DOI : 10.1089/ast.2005.5.141

F. Inagaki, T. Nunoura, S. Nakagawa, A. Teske, M. Lever et al., Biogeographical distribution and diversity of microbes in methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments on the Pacific Ocean Margin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, pp.2815-2820, 2006.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0511033103

B. B. Jørgensen, D. Hondt, and S. , ECOLOGY: A Starving Majority Deep Beneath the Seafloor, Science, vol.314, issue.5801, pp.932-934, 2006.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1133796

S. J. Jorry, I. Jegou, L. Emmanuel, R. S. Jacinto, and B. Savoye, Turbiditic levee deposition in response to climate changes: The Var Sedimentary Ridge (Ligurian Sea), Marine Geology, vol.279, issue.1-4, pp.148-161, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.margeo.2010.10.021

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00577756

G. Jouet, S. Berne, M. Rabineau, M. A. Bassetti, P. Bernier et al., Shoreface migrations at the shelf edge and sea-level changes around the Last Glacial Maximum (Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean), Marine Geology, vol.234, issue.1-4, pp.21-42, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.margeo.2006.09.012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00145076

J. Kallmeyer, D. C. Smith, A. J. Spivack, D. Hondt, and S. , New cell extraction procedure applied to deep subsurface sediments, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, vol.6, issue.6, pp.236-245, 2008.
DOI : 10.4319/lom.2008.6.236

H. Kampe, C. Dziallas, H. P. Grossart, and N. Kamjunke, Similar Bacterial Community Composition in Acidic Mining Lakes with Different pH and Lake Chemistry, Microbial Ecology, vol.51, issue.3, pp.618-627, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s00248-010-9679-5

L. Cono, V. Smedile, F. Bortoluzzi, G. Arcadi, E. Maimone et al., Unveiling microbial life in new deep-sea hypersaline Lake Thetis. Part I: Prokaryotes and environmental settings, Environ. Microbiol, 2011.

D. J. Lane, E. Stackebrandt, and M. Goodfellow, 16S/23S rRNA sequencing, in: Nucleic Acid Techniques , in: Bacterial Systematics, pp.115-175, 1991.

C. S. Lazar, R. J. Parkes, B. A. Cragg, S. L-'haridon, and L. Toffin, Methanogenic diversity and activity in hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Environmental Microbiology, vol.62, issue.8, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02425.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00618011

J. S. Lipp, Y. Morono, F. Inagaki, and K. U. Hinrichs, Significant contribution of Archaea to extant biomass in marine subsurface sediments, Nature, vol.409, issue.7207, pp.991-994, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nature07174

J. R. Marchesi, A. J. Weightman, B. A. Cragg, R. J. Parkes, and J. C. Fry, Methanogen and bacterial diversity and distribution in deep gas hydrate sediments from the Cascadia Margin as revealed by 16S rRNA molecular analysis, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.34, issue.3, pp.221-228, 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2001.tb00773.x

J. B. Martiny, B. J. Bohannan, J. H. Brown, R. K. Colwell, J. A. Fuhrman et al., Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map, Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map, pp.102-112, 1038.
DOI : 10.1038/nrmicro1341

O. U. Mason, T. Nakagawa, M. Rosner, J. D. Van-nostrand, J. Zhou et al., First Investigation of the Microbiology of the Deepest Layer of Ocean Crust, PLoS ONE, vol.17, issue.11, 2010.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0015399.s003

B. A. Methe, W. D. Hiorns, and J. P. Zehr, Contrasts between marine and freshwater bacterial community composition: Analyses of communities in Lake George and six other Adirondack lakes, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.43, issue.2, pp.368-374, 1998.
DOI : 10.4319/lo.1998.43.2.0368

J. J. Middelburg, A simple rate model for organic matter decomposition in marine sediments, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.53, issue.7, pp.1577-158110, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(89)90239-1

S. Migeon, T. Mulder, B. Savoye, and F. Sage, The Var turbidite system (Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean)???morphology, sediment supply, construction of turbidite levee and sediment waves: implications for hydrocarbon reservoirs, Geo-Marine Letters, vol.20, issue.8, pp.361-371, 1007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00367-006-0047-x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00407611

Y. Morono, T. Terada, N. Masui, and F. Inagaki, Discriminative detection and enumeration of microbial life in marine subsurface sediments, The ISME Journal, vol.64, issue.5, pp.503-511, 2009.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.95.12.6578

C. J. Newberry, G. Webster, B. A. Cragg, R. J. Parkes, A. J. Weightman et al., Diversity of prokaryotes and methanogenesis in deep subsurface sediments from the Nankai Trough, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 190, Environmental Microbiology, vol.180, issue.3, pp.274-287, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/45777

U. Nübel, B. Engelen, A. Felske, J. Snaidr, A. Wieshuber et al., Sequence heterogeneities of genes encoding 16S rRNAs in Paenibacillus polymyxa detected by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis., Journal of Bacteriology, vol.178, issue.19, pp.5636-5643, 1996.
DOI : 10.1128/jb.178.19.5636-5643.1996

T. Nunoura, B. Soffientino, A. Blazejak, J. Kakuta, H. Oida et al., Subseafloor microbial communities associated with rapid turbidite deposition in the Gulf of Mexico continental slope, IODP Expedition FEMS Microb. Ecol, vol.308, issue.69, pp.410-424, 2009.

R. J. Parkes, B. A. Cragg, and P. Wellsbury, Recent studies on bacterial populations and processes in subseafloor sediments: A review, Hydrogeology Journal, vol.8, issue.1, pp.11-2810, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00010971

R. J. Parkes, G. Webster, B. A. Cragg, A. J. Weightman, C. J. Newberry et al., Deep sub-seafloor prokaryotes stimulated at interfaces over geological time, Nature, vol.436, issue.7049, pp.390-39410, 1038.
DOI : 10.1038/nature03796

R. J. Parkes, G. Sellek, G. Webster, D. Martin, E. Anders et al., Culturable prokaryotic diversity of deep, gas hydrate sediments: first use of a continuous high-pressure, anaerobic, enrichment and isolation system for subseafloor sediments (DeepIsoBUG), Environmental Microbiology, vol.34, issue.12, pp.3140-3153, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02018.x

G. Pautot, Morphollogic framework of the Baie-des-Anges (Nicecôte-d'Azur ) ? Instability model of continental ? slope, Oceanol. Ac, vol.4, pp.203-211, 1981.

N. M. Phuong, Y. Kang, K. Sakurai, K. Iwasaki, C. N. Kien et al., Arsenic contents and physicochemical properties of agricultural soils from the Red River Delta, Vietnam, Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, vol.49, issue.1, pp.846-855, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2005.04.019

D. J. Piper and B. Savoye, Processes of late Quaternary turbidity current flow and deposition on the Var deep-sea fan, north-west Mediterranean Sea, Sedimentology, vol.27, issue.2, pp.557-582, 1993.
DOI : 10.1038/332629a0

P. N. Polymenakou, S. Bertilsson, A. Tselepides, and E. G. Stephanou, Links between Geographic Location, Environmental Factors, and Microbial Community Composition in Sediments of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Microbial Ecology, vol.13, issue.3, pp.367-378, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00248-004-0274-5

P. N. Polymenakou, S. Bertilsson, A. Tselepides, and E. G. Stephanou, Bacterial Community Composition in Different Sediments from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a Comparison of Four 16S Ribosomal DNA Clone Libraries, Microbial Ecology, vol.68, issue.3, pp.447-462, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00248-005-0005-6

P. N. Polymenakou, N. Lampadariou, M. Mandalakis, and A. Tselepides, Phylogenetic diversity of sediment bacteria from the southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Systematic and Applied Microbiology, vol.32, issue.1, pp.17-26, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.syapm.2008.09.006

M. Rabineau, S. Berne, D. Aslanian, J. L. Olivet, P. Joseph et al., Sedimentary sequences in the Gulf of Lion: A record of 100,000 years climatic cycles, Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol.22, issue.6-7, pp.775-804, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2005.03.010

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00112906

M. Rabineau, S. Berne, J. Olivet, D. Aslanian, F. Guillocheau et al., Paleo sea levels reconsidered from direct observation of paleoshoreline position during Glacial Maxima (for the last 500,000??yr), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.252, issue.1-2, pp.119-137, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.033

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00128413

V. Rebata-landa and J. C. Santamarina, Mechanical limits to microbial activity in deep sediments, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol.61, issue.6, pp.11006-11016, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2006GC001355

S. Révillon, G. Jouet, G. Bayon, M. Rabineau, B. Dennielou et al., The provenance of sediments in the Gulf of Lions, western Mediterranean Sea, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol.28, issue.4, pp.8006-8016, 2011.
DOI : 10.1029/2011GC003523

T. O. Richter, S. J. Van-der-gaast, B. Koster, A. J. Vaars, R. Gieles et al., The Avaatech XRF Core Scanner: technical description and applications to NE Atlantic sediments, in: New Techniques in Sediment Core Analysis, pp.39-50, 2006.

J. R. Rogers and P. C. Bennett, Mineral stimulation of subsurface microorganisms: release of limiting nutrients from silicates, Chemical Geology, vol.203, issue.1-2, pp.91-108, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2003.09.001

R. Rossello-mora, B. Thamdrup, H. Schäfer, R. Weller, and R. Amann, The Response of the Microbial Community of Marine Sediments to Organic Carbon Input under Anaerobic Conditions, Systematic and Applied Microbiology, vol.22, issue.2, pp.237-248, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0723-2020(99)80071-X

E. G. Roussel, A. L. Sauvadet, J. Allard, C. Chaduteau, P. Richard et al., Archaeal Methane Cycling Communities Associated with Gassy Subsurface Sediments of Marennes-Ol??ron Bay (France), Geomicrobiology Journal, vol.152, issue.1, pp.31-4310, 1080.
DOI : 10.1099/00207713-49-1-247

E. G. Roussel, A. L. Sauvadet, C. Chaduteau, Y. Fouquet, J. L. Charlou et al., Archaeal communities associated with shallow to deep subseafloor sediments of the New Caledonia Basin, Environmental Microbiology, vol.21, issue.9, pp.2446-2462, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.01976.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00617523

J. W. Sahl, R. H. Schmidt, E. D. Swanner, K. W. Mandernack, A. S. Templeton et al., Subsurface Microbial Diversity in Deep-Granitic-Fracture Water in Colorado, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.74, issue.1, pp.143-15201133, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.01133-07

B. Schnetger, H. J. Brumsack, H. Schale, J. Hinrichs, and L. Dittert, Geochemical characteristics of deep-sea sediments from the Arabian Sea: a high-resolution study, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.47, issue.14, pp.2735-276810, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00047-3

S. Schouten, J. J. Middelburg, E. C. Hopmans, and J. S. Damste, Fossilization and degradation of intact polar lipids in deep subsurface sediments: A theoretical approach, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.74, issue.13, pp.3806-3814, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2010.03.029

S. Selenska-pobell, G. Kampf, K. Flemming, G. Radeva, and G. Satchanska, Bacterial diversity in soil samples from two uranium waste piles as determined by rep-APD, RISA and 16S rDNA retrieval, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol.79, issue.2, pp.149-161101010237711077, 1023.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1010237711077

F. J. Sierro, D. A. Hodell, J. H. Curtis, J. A. Flores, I. Reguera et al., Impact of iceberg melting on Mediterranean thermohaline circulation during Heinrich events Phase relationship between sea level and abrupt climate change, Paleoceanography Quat. Sci. Rev, vol.20, issue.28, pp.2867-2881, 1029.

V. S. Soina, E. A. Vorobiova, D. G. Zvyagintsev, D. A. Gilichinsky, J. M. Greenberg et al., Preservation of cell structures in permafrost: A model for exobiology, Advances in Space Research, vol.15, issue.3, pp.237-242, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/S0273-1177(99)80090-8

K. B. Sørensen and A. Teske, Stratified Communities of Active Archaea in Deep Marine Subsurface Sediments, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.72, issue.7, pp.4596-460300562, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00562-06

V. Souza, L. Espinosa-asuar, A. E. Escalante, L. E. Eguiarte, J. Farmer et al., An endangered oasis of aquatic microbial biodiversity in the Chihuahuan desert, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.103, issue.17, pp.6565-6570, 2006.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0601434103

E. Stackebrandt and J. Ebers, Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards, Microbiol. Today, pp.152-155, 2006.

A. Teske and K. B. Sørensen, Uncultured archaea in deep marine subsurface sediments: have we caught them all?, The ISME Journal, vol.62, issue.1, pp.3-18, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nbt1214

J. J. Wang, Y. C. Wu, H. C. Jiang, C. H. Li, H. L. Dong et al., High beta diversity of bacteria in the shallow terrestrial subsurface, Environmental Microbiology, vol.449, issue.10, pp.2537-2549, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01678.x

A. J. Weaver, O. A. Saenko, P. U. Clark, and J. X. Mitrovica, Meltwater Pulse 1A from Antarctica as a Trigger of the Bolling-Allerod Warm Interval, Science, vol.299, issue.5613, pp.1709-171310, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1081002

G. Webster, R. J. Parkes, B. A. Cragg, C. J. Newberry, A. J. Weightman et al., Prokaryotic community composition and biogeochemical processes in deep subseafloor sediwww, biogeosciences.net Biogeosciences, vol.3491, issue.9, pp.3491-3512, 2012.

F. Widdel and F. Bak, Gram-negative mesophilic sulphatereducing bacteria, in: The Prokaryotes, pp.3352-3378, 1992.

R. Wilms, B. Kopke, H. Sass, T. S. Chang, H. Cypionka et al., Deep biosphere-related bacteria within the subsurface of tidal flat sediments, Environmental Microbiology, vol.145, issue.4, pp.709-719, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-6445(97)00057-0

K. Yamane, H. Maki, T. Nakayama, T. Nakajima, N. Nomura et al., Diversity and Similarity of Microbial Communities in Petroleum Crude Oils Produced in Asia, Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, vol.72, issue.11, pp.2831-2839, 2008.
DOI : 10.1271/bbb.80227

J. Yan, B. A. Rash, F. A. Rainey, M. , and W. M. , Isolation of novel bacteria within the Chloroflexi capable of reductive dechlorination of 1, Environ. Microbiol, vol.2, issue.11, pp.3-833, 2009.

K. M. Yarincik, R. W. Murray, and L. C. Peterson, Climatically sensitive eolian and hemipelagic deposition in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, over the past 578,000 years: Results from Al/Ti and K/Al, Paleoceanography, vol.117, issue.2, pp.210-22810, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/1999PA900048

L. Zinger, B. Shahnavaz, F. Baptist, R. A. Geremia, and P. Choler, Microbial diversity in alpine tundra soils correlates with snow cover dynamics, The ISME Journal, vol.54, issue.7, pp.850-859, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/ismej.2009.20