Y. Aizawa and A. Yoneda, P???V???T equation of state of MgSiO3 perovskite and MgO periclase: Implication for lower mantle composition, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.155, issue.1-2, pp.87-95, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pepi.2005.10.002

M. Akaogi, Olivine-modified spinel-spinel transitions in the system Mg 2 SiO 4 -Fe 2 SiO 4 : Calorimetric measurements, thermochemical calculation, and geophysical application, J. Geophys. Res, vol.94685, issue.15, pp.671-1510, 1989.

F. Albarede and R. D. Van-der-hilst, Zoned mantle convection, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.360, issue.1800, pp.2569-2592, 2002.
DOI : 10.1098/rsta.2002.1081

D. L. Anderson, Composition of the Earth, Science, vol.243, issue.4889, pp.367-370, 1989.
DOI : 10.1126/science.243.4889.367

D. L. Anderson, New Theory of the Earth, 2007.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9781139167291

O. L. Anderson, A new thermodynamic approach for high-pressure physics, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.91, issue.1-3, pp.3-1610, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-9201(95)03044-W

J. Badro, Iron Partitioning in Earth's Mantle: Toward a Deep Lower Mantle Discontinuity, Science, vol.300, issue.5620, pp.789-791, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1081311

J. Badro, Thermochemical state of the lower mantle: New insights from mineral physics, in Earth's Deep Mantle: Structure, Composition and Evolution, Geophys. Monogr. Ser, vol.160, pp.241-260, 2005.

F. Birch, Elasticity and constitution of the Earth's interior, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.249, issue.14, pp.227-28610, 1952.
DOI : 10.1029/JZ057i002p00227

J. P. Brodholt, Chemical versus thermal heterogeneity in the lower mantle: The most likely role of anelasticity, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.262, issue.3-4, pp.429-437, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.07.054

H. P. Bunge, Non-adiabaticity in mantle convection, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.386, issue.5, pp.879-88210, 2001.
DOI : 10.1029/2000GL011864

F. Cammarano, Inferring upper-mantle temperatures from seismic velocities, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.138, issue.3-4, pp.197-22210, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9201(03)00156-0

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00119001

F. Cammarano, One-dimensional physical reference models for the upper mantle and transition zone: Combining seismic and mineral physics constraints, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.108, issue.B1, pp.10-1029, 2005.
DOI : 10.1029/2004JB003272

F. Cammarano, Is a pyrolitic adiabatic mantle compatible with seismic data?, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.232, issue.3-4, pp.227-243, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.01.031

L. Cobden, Thermochemical interpretation of onedimensional seismic reference models for the upper mantle: Evidence for bias due to heterogeneity, Geophys, J. Int, vol.175, pp.627-648, 2008.

N. Coltice and Y. Ricard, Geochemical observations and one layer mantle convection, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.174, issue.1-2, pp.125-13710, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00258-7

J. A. Connolly, Multivariable phase diagrams; an algorithm based on generalized thermodynamics, American Journal of Science, vol.290, issue.6, pp.666-718, 1990.
DOI : 10.2475/ajs.290.6.666

J. A. Connolly, Computation of phase equilibria by linear programming: A tool for geodynamic modeling and its application to subduction zone decarbonation, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.236, issue.1-2, pp.524-541, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.04.033

H. P. Crotwell, The TauP Toolkit: Flexible Seismic Travel-time and Ray-path Utilities, Seismological Research Letters, vol.70, issue.2, pp.154-160, 1999.
DOI : 10.1785/gssrl.70.2.154

J. C. Crowhurst, Elasticity of (Mg,Fe)O Through the Spin Transition of Iron in the Lower Mantle, Science, vol.319, issue.5862, pp.451-453, 2008.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1149606

C. R. Da-silva, The composition and geotherm of the lower mantle: constraints from the elasticity of silicate perovskite, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.118, issue.1-2, pp.103-109, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9201(99)00133-8

G. F. Davies and A. M. Dziewonski, Homogeneity and constitution of the earth's lower mantle and outer core, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.10, issue.4, pp.336-34310, 1975.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-9201(75)90060-6

F. Deschamps and J. Trampert, Mantle tomography and its relation to temperature and composition, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.140, issue.4, pp.277-291, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pepi.2003.09.004

F. Deschamps and J. Trampert, Towards a lower mantle reference temperature and composition, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.222, issue.1, pp.161-175, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2004.02.024

M. J. Drake and K. Righter, Determining the composition of the Earth, Nature, vol.293, issue.6876, pp.39-4410, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/416039a

A. M. Dziewonski and D. L. Anderson, Preliminary reference Earth model, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.25, issue.4, pp.297-35610, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-9201(81)90046-7

E. R. Engdahl, R. Van-der-hilst, and R. Buland, Global teleseismic earthquake relocation with improved travel times and procedures for depth determination, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.88, pp.722-743, 1998.

A. M. Forte and J. X. Mitrovica, Deep-mantle high-viscosity flow and thermochemical structure inferred from seismic and geodynamic data, Nature, vol.410, issue.6832, pp.1049-10561035074000, 1038.
DOI : 10.1038/35074000

K. Gallagher, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods to determine optimal models, model resolution and model choice for Earth Science problems, Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol.26, issue.4, pp.525-535, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.01.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00381707

S. Goes, Synthetic seismic signature of thermal mantle plumes, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.218, issue.3-4, pp.403-41910, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00680-0

S. P. Grand, High resolution global tomography: A snapshot of convection in the Earth, GSA Today, vol.7, pp.1-7, 1997.

P. J. Green, Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo computation and Bayesian model determination, Biometrika, vol.82, issue.4, pp.711-732, 1995.
DOI : 10.1093/biomet/82.4.711

P. J. Green, A Primer on Markov Chain Monte Carlo, Highly Structured Stochastic Systems, pp.179-196, 2001.
DOI : 10.1201/9781420035988.ch1

P. J. Green, Trans-dimensional MCMC, Highly Structured Stochastic Systems, pp.179-196, 2003.

S. R. Hart and A. Zindler, In search of a bulk-Earth composition, Chemical Geology, vol.57, issue.3-4, pp.247-26710, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0009-2541(86)90053-7

A. W. Hofmann, Mantle geochemistry: the message from oceanic volcanism, Nature, vol.385, issue.6613, pp.219-229, 1997.
DOI : 10.1038/385219a0

T. Irifune and A. E. Ringwood, Phase-transformations in a harzburgite composition to 26 GPa?Implications for dynamical behavior of the subducting slab, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.8687, pp.365-37610, 1987.

M. Ishii and J. Tromp, Normal-Mode and Free-Air Gravity Constraints on Lateral Variations in Velocity and Density of Earth's Mantle, Science, vol.285, issue.5431, pp.1231-1236, 1999.
DOI : 10.1126/science.285.5431.1231

I. Jackson, Elasticity, composition and temperature of the Earth???s lower mantle: a reappraisal, Geophysical Journal International, vol.134, issue.1, pp.291-311, 1998.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-246x.1998.00560.x

J. M. Jackson, S. V. Sinogeikin, S. D. Jacobsen, H. J. Reichmann, S. J. Mackwell et al., Single-crystal elasticity and sound velocities of (Mg 0.94 Fe 0.06 )O ferropericlase to 20 GPa, J. Geophys. Res, vol.111, p.920310, 1029.

M. Javoy, The integral enstatite chondrite model of the Earth, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.325, issue.l, pp.2219-222210, 1995.
DOI : 10.1029/95GL02015

S. Karato, Importance of anelasticity in the interpretation of seismic tomography, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.74, issue.15, pp.1623-162610, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/93GL01767

T. Katsura, Olivine-wadsleyite transition in the system (Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4, J. Geophys. Res, pp.10-1029, 2004.

L. H. Kellogg, Compositional Stratification in the Deep Mantle, Science, vol.283, issue.5409, pp.1881-1884, 1999.
DOI : 10.1126/science.283.5409.1881

B. L. Kennett, Constraints on seismic velocities in the Earth from traveltimes, Geophysical Journal International, vol.122, issue.1, pp.108-124, 1995.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1995.tb03540.x

B. L. Kennett, Joint seismic tomography for bulk sound and shear wave speed in the Earth's mantle, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.101, issue.4, pp.469-481, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/98JB00150

A. Khan, J. A. Connolly, and N. Olsen, Constraining the composition and thermal state of the mantle beneath Europe from inversion of long-period electromagnetic sounding data, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.108, issue.B10, pp.10-1029, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JB004270

A. Khan, J. A. Connolly, and S. R. Taylor, Inversion of seismic and geodetic data for the major element chemistry and temperature of the Earth's mantle, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.371, issue.B6, pp.930810-1029, 2008.
DOI : 10.1029/2007JB005239

K. K. Lee, Equations of state of the high-pressure phases of a natural peridotite and implications for the Earth's lower mantle, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.223, issue.3-4, pp.381-393, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2004.04.033

B. S. Li and J. Z. Zhang, Pressure and temperature dependence of elastic wave velocity of MgSiO3 perovskite and the composition of the lower mantle, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.151, issue.1-2, pp.143-154, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pepi.2005.02.004

J. Lin, S. D. Jacobsen, W. Sturhahn, J. M. Jackson, J. Zhao et al., Sound velocities of ferropericlase in the Earth's lower mantle, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.97, issue.B2, pp.2230410-1029, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2006GL028099

T. Lyubetskaya and J. Korenaga, Chemical composition of Earth's primitive mantle and its variance: 1. Method and results, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.117, issue.B3, pp.10-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2005JB004223

T. Lyubetskaya and J. Korenaga, Chemical composition of Earth's primitive mantle and its variance: 2. Implications for global geodynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.231, issue.52, pp.10-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2005JB004224

G. Masters, The relative behaviour of shear velocity, bulk sound speed, and compressional velocity in the mantle: Implications for chemical and thermal structure, Earth's Deep Interior: Mineral Physics and Tomography From the Atomic to the Global Scale, 2000.

J. Matas and M. S. Bukowinski, On the anelastic contribution to the temperature dependence of lower mantle seismic velocities, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.259, issue.1-2, pp.51-65, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.04.028

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00342541

J. Matas, On the bulk composition of the lower mantle: predictions and limitations from generalized inversion of radial seismic profiles, Geophysical Journal International, vol.170, issue.2, pp.764-780, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03454.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00337496

E. Mattern, Lower mantle composition and temperature from mineral physics and thermodynamic modelling, Geophysical Journal International, vol.160, issue.3, pp.973-990, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02549.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00102163

T. Nakagawa and P. J. Tackley, Thermo-chemical structure in the mantle arising from a three-component convective system and implications for geochemistry, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.146, issue.1-2, pp.125-138, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pepi.2003.05.006

A. R. Oganov, Ab initio theory of phase transitions and thermoelasticity of minerals Energy Modelling in Minerals, EMU Notes in Mineralogy Eur. Mineral, vol.4, pp.83-170, 2002.

K. Ohta, Phase transitions in pyrolite and MORB at lowermost mantle conditions: Implications for a MORB-rich pile above the core???mantle boundary, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.267, issue.1-2, pp.107-117, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.11.037

H. Palme and B. O. Neill, Cosmochemical estimates of mantle composition The Mantle and Core, Treatise in Geology, pp.1-38, 2003.

J. P. Perrillat, Phase transformations of subducted basaltic crust in the upmost lower mantle, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.157, issue.1-2, pp.139-149, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pepi.2006.04.001

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00093977

J. P. Poirier, Introduction to the Physics of the Earth's Interior, 2000.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9781139164467

R. P. Rapp, Subduction recycling of continental sediments and the origin of geochemically enriched reservoirs in the deep mantle, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.271, issue.1-4, pp.14-23, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.02.028

M. Ravenna, A Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion method for layering and amplitude of seismic velocity variations: An application to 1-D structure of the lower mantle, 2009.

J. Resovsky and J. Trampert, Using probabilistic seismic tomography to test mantle velocity???density relationships, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.215, issue.1-2, pp.121-13410, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00436-9

R. L. Saltzer, Comparing P and S wave heterogeneity in the mantle, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.133, issue.7, pp.1335-133810, 2001.
DOI : 10.1029/2000GL012339

M. Sambridge, Trans-dimensional inverse problems, model comparison and the evidence, Geophysical Journal International, vol.167, issue.2, pp.528-542, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03155.x

G. Sinha and S. L. Butler, On the origin and significance of subadiabatic temperature gradients in the mantle, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.111, issue.234, pp.10-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JB004850

S. Speziale, V. E. Lee, S. M. Clark, J. F. Lin, M. P. Pasternak et al., Effects of Fe spin transition on the elasticity of (Mg, Fe)O magnesiowü stites and implications for the seismological properties of the Earth's lower mantle, J. Geophys. Res, vol.112, p.1021210, 1029.

L. Stixrude and C. Lithgow-bertelloni, Mineralogy and elasticity of the oceanic upper mantle: Origin of the low-velocity zone, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.22, issue.2, pp.10-1029, 2005.
DOI : 10.1029/2004JB002965

L. Stixrude and C. Lithgow-bertelloni, Thermodynamics of mantle minerals - I. Physical properties, Geophysical Journal International, vol.162, issue.2, pp.610-632, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02642.x

L. Stixrude and C. Lithgow-bertelloni, Influence of phase transformations on lateral heterogeneity and dynamics in Earth's mantle, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.263, issue.1-2, pp.45-55, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.08.027

W. J. Su and A. M. Dziewonski, Simultaneous inversion for 3-D variations in shear and bulk velocity in the mantle, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.100, issue.1-4, pp.135-15610, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9201(96)03236-0

S. S. Sun, Chemical composition and origin of the earth's primitive mantle, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.46, issue.2, pp.179-19210, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(82)90245-9

E. Tan and M. Gurnis, Compressible thermochemical convection and application to lower mantle structures, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.94, issue.11, pp.10-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JB004505

J. Trampert, Sensitivities of seismic velocities to temperature, pressure and composition in the lower mantle, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.124, issue.3-4, pp.255-26710, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9201(01)00201-1

J. Trampert, Probabilistic Tomography Maps Chemical Heterogeneities Throughout the Lower Mantle, Science, vol.306, issue.5697, pp.853-856, 2004.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1101996

M. Trieloff, The nature of pristine noble gases in mantle plumes Compositional heterogeneity in the bottom 1000 kilometers of Earth's mantle: Toward a hybrid convection model, Evidence for deep mantle circulation from global tomography, pp.1036-1038, 1997.

G. Arrial, P. Choblet, V. Tarits, T. Dehant, and . Van-hoolst, Constraints on thermal state and composition of the Earth's lower mantle from electromagnetic impedances and seismic data, J. Geophys. Res, vol.114, pp.330210-1029, 2009.

R. M. Wentzcovitch, B. B. Karki, M. Cococcioni, and S. De-gironcoli, Thermoelastic properties of MgSiO 3 -perovskite: Insights on the nature of the Earth's lower mantle, Phys. Rev. Lett, vol.92, pp.10-1103, 2004.

Q. Williams and E. Knittle, The uncertain major element bulk composition of the Earth's mantle, in Earth's Deep Mantle: Structure, Composition and Evolution, Geophys. Monogr. Ser, vol.160, pp.189-202, 2005.

E. D. Williamson and L. H. Adams, Density distribution in the Earth, J. Wash. Acad. Sci, vol.13, pp.413-428, 1923.
DOI : 10.1029/SP026p0001