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Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003

Philippe Ciais 1, 2 P. Reichstein 3, 4 Nicolas Viovy 1, 5 A. Granier 6 Jérôme Ogée 7 Vincent Allard 8 M. Aubinet 9 N. Buchmann 10 C. Bernhofer 11 A. Carrara 12 F. Chevallier 1, 13 N. de Noblet 1, 14 A. Friend 1 Pierre Friedlingstein 1 T. Grünwald 11, 15 B. Heinesch 9 P. Keronen 16 A. Knohl 15, 17 G. Krinner 18 Denis Loustau 7 G. Manca 3, 19 G. Matteucci 19, 20 F. Miglietta 21 J.M. Ourcival 22 D. Papale 3 K. Pilegaard 23 S. Rambal 22 G. Seufert 20 J.F. Soussana 8 M. J. Sanz 12 E.D. Schulze 15 T. Vesala 16 R. Valentini 3
2 ICOS-ATC - ICOS-ATC
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
5 MOSAIC - Modélisation des Surfaces et Interfaces Continentales
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
13 SATINV - Modélisation INVerse pour les mesures atmosphériques et SATellitaires
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
14 ESTIMR - Extrèmes : Statistiques, Impacts et Régionalisation
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
23 Biosystems Division [Roskilde]
Risø DTU - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy
Abstract : Future climate warming is expected to enhance plant growth in temperate ecosystems and to increase carbon sequestration. But although severe regional heatwaves may become more frequent in a changing climate their impact on terrestrial carbon cycling is unclear. Here we report measurements of ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes, remotely sensed radiation absorbed by plants, and country-level crop yields taken during the European heatwave in 2003.We use a terrestrial biosphere simulation model to assess continental-scale changes in primary productivity during 2003, and their consequences for the net carbon balance. We estimate a 30 per cent reduction in gross primary productivity over Europe, which resulted in a strong anomalous net source of carbon dioxide (0.5 Pg Cyr21) to the atmosphere and reversed the effect of four years of net ecosystem carbon sequestration. Our results suggest that productivity reduction in eastern and western Europe can be explained by rainfall deficit and extreme summer heat, respectively. We also find that ecosystem respiration decreased together with gross primary productivity, rather than accelerating with the temperature rise. Model results, corroborated by historical records of crop yields, suggest that such a reduction in Europe's primary productivity is unprecedented during the last century. An increase in future drought events could turn temperate ecosystems into carbon sources, contributing to positive carbon-climate feedbacks already anticipated in the tropics and at high latitudes.
Mots-clés : PRODUCTION PRIMAIRE
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Journal articles
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 7, 2009 - 1:49:55 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 7, 2020 - 10:04:25 AM

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Philippe Ciais, P. Reichstein, Nicolas Viovy, A. Granier, Jérôme Ogée, et al.. Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature, Nature Publishing Group, 2005, 437 (7058), pp.529 à 533. ⟨10.1038/nature03972⟩. ⟨insu-00373792⟩

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