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Two magma series and associated ore deposit types in the Permian Emeishan large igneous province, SW China

Abstract : The Late Middle Permian (not, vert, similar 260 Ma) Emeishan large igneous province in SW China contains two magmatic series, one comprising high-Ti basalts and Fe-rich gabbroic and syenitic intrusions, the other low-Ti basalts and mafic-ultramafic intrusions. The Fe-rich gabbros are spatially and temporally associated with syenites. Each series is associated with a distinctive type of mineralization, the first with giant Fe-Ti-V oxide ore deposits such as Panzhihua and Baima, the second with Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposits such as Jinbaoshan, Limahe and Zhubu. New SHRIMP zircon U-Pb isotopic data yielded 263 ± 3 Ma for the Limahe intrusion, 261 ± 2 Ma for the Zhubu intrusion and 262 ± 2 Ma for a syenitic intrusion. These new age dates, together with previously reported SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages, suggest that all these intrusions are contemporaneous with the Emeishan flood basalts and formed during a major igneous event at ca. 260 Ma. The oxide-bearing intrusions have higher Al2O3, FeO (as total iron) and total alkalis (Na2O + K2O) but lower MgO than the sulfide-bearing intrusions. All intrusions are variably enriched in LREE relative to HREE. The oxide-bearing intrusions display positive Nb- and Ti-anomalies and in certain cases negative Zr-Hf anomalies, whereas the sulfide-bearing intrusions have obvious negative Nb- and Ti-anomalies, a feature of crustal contamination. Individual intrusions have relatively small ranges of var epsilonNd(t) values. All the intrusions, however, have var epsilonNd(t) values ranging from − 3.9 to + 4.6, and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7039 to 0.7105. The syenites have very low MgO (< 2 wt.%) but highly variable Fe2O3 (2.5 to 13 wt.%) with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7039 to 0.7089. Magmas from both series could have derived by melting of a heterogeneous mantle plume: the high-Ti series from a Fe-rich, more fertile source and the low-Ti series from a Fe-poor, more refractory source. In addition, the low-Ti series underwent significant crustal contamination. The two magma series evolved along different paths that led to distinct mineralization styles.
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Mei-Fu Zhou, Nicholas Arndt, J. Malpas, C. Y. Wang, A. K. Kennedy. Two magma series and associated ore deposit types in the Permian Emeishan large igneous province, SW China. Lithos, Elsevier, 2007, 103 (3-4), pp.352 à 368. ⟨10.1016/j.lithos.2007.10.006⟩. ⟨insu-00353679⟩



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